EU citizenship should speak both to the mobile and the non-mobile European

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RSCAS 2017/60 Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Global Governance Programme-289 GLOBALCIT Should EU citizenship be duty-free? Edited by Maurizio Ferrera and Rainer Bauböck European University Institute Programme EUI Working Paper This text may downloaded only personal research purposes Additional reproduction other whether in hard copies or electronically requires the consent of author(s) editor(s) If cited quoted reference should made to full name title working paper series year publisher ISSN 1028-3625 © 2017 Printed Italy December Badia Fiesolana I – 50014 San Domenico di Fiesole (FI) www eui eu/RSCAS/Publications/ eu cadmus The (RSCAS) created 1992 directed Professor Brigid Laffan aims develop inter-disciplinary comparative promote work on major issues facing process integration society is home a large post-doctoral programme hosts programmes projects range groups ad hoc initiatives agenda organised around set core themes continuously evolving reflecting changing expanding membership Union Details can found on: http://www eu/RSCAS/Research/ Research publications take form Papers Policy Briefs Distinguished Lectures Project Reports Books Most these are also available website: not responsible opinion expressed at one flagship (EUI) It to: build community outstanding professors scholars produce high quality engage with world practice through policy dialogue At established early career write discuss within beyond academia global governance focussing four broad interdisciplinary areas: Transnational Governance; Economics; Europe World; Cultural Pluralism For more information: http://globalgovernanceprogramme successor EUDO CITIZENSHIP an observatory EUI’s publishes two kinds papers: (1) peer reviewed previously unpublished manuscripts topics laws policies covered (2) collections edited contributions Forum Debates information visit our website eu/globalcit/ Series editors: (European Political Social Sciences) Iseult Honohan (University College Dublin School Politics International Relations) Jo Shaw Edinburgh Law School) Maarten Vink Maastricht Department Science) views this publication cannot any circumstance regarded as official position Abstract In forum debate argues strengthening order make it attractive mobile Europeans but ‘stayers’ who feel left behind processes globalisation According primarily ‘isopolitical’ regulatory; confers horizontal rights people enter spaces member states imposes duties non-discrimination without providing redistribution response perceived real burdens resulting from free movement suggests several reforms that aim broadly empowering stayers Among his proposals “EU social card” universal transferrable vouchers accessing pass their children want move wide insurance scheme would supplement those He strengthen some soft such earmarking small percentage income tax raising funds fees card passports Some respondents Ferrera’s essay deny creates call compensation insist remain duty Others focus sources solidarity ask what justice apply Several authors support arguments while advocating bolder Kickoff contribution rejoinder Christian Joppke Susanne K Schmidt Frank Vandenbroucke Dorte Sindbjerg Martinsen Andrea Sangiovanni Martin Seeleib-Kaiser Julia Hermann Richard Bellamy Theresa Kuhn Ilaria Madama Anton Hemerijck Dora Kostakopoulou Sandra Seubert Philippe Van Parijs Keywords welfare mobility immobility Table Contents Kick off 1 Liberal Citizenship Is Duty-Free Building Requires Challenging Judicialisation 5 speak both non-mobile 9 impact political accountability Martinsen* 13 “Feed them first then virtue them”: Broadening deepening freedom Sangiovanni* 15 Duties Rights Seeleib-Kaiser* 21 Why compensating “stayers” costs wrong way go Hermann* 25 Balancing Towards National Citizens: An Inter-national Perspective Bellamy* 27 Grab horns dilemma ride bull Bauböck* 31 adding likely increase gap between Europhiles Eurosceptics Kuhn* 39 Enhancing visibility Europe: practical ‘the last mile’ Madama* 41 ‘holding environment’ Europe’s (diverse) regimes Hemerijck* 45 Imagine: Post-Marshallian Kostakopoulou* 53 Crisis Democracy Seubert* 57 Regaining Trust Stay-at-homes: Three Strategies Parijs* 61 Democratic Values Integration: Rejoinder 65 Ferrera*1 Introduction historical state formation has played key role sorted out “insiders” (the members community) aliens/outsiders conferred citizens equal status regardless market positions stabilised generalised compliance sustained cooperation legitimation authority least cultural material bonds throughout population With Treaty national been complemented new layer said purpose innovation was two-pronged: hand rationalize (symbolically institutionally) disordered array individual freedoms faculties linked its legal order; create recognizable symbol capable enhancing precisely mutual bonding among all nationality While there evidence twenty-five years do know value citizenship2 disappointment about latter’s actual effects terms especially light rising Euroscepticism souvranisme anti-immigration (including intra-EU mobility) sentiments recent speech 3 raised challenging question: integrative functions enhanced how? nutshell Bauböck’s proposal we need “add stuff” container immediately salient effective mechanism Two additions particular proposed author: stronger component (individual levels protection universally) “some duty” exclusively centered rights: “a duty-free does sense makes less keen hold governments accountable” generally sympathize argument welcome open discussion topic Before outlining reform however better articulate diagnosis clearly identify existing flaws construct dimension mind will start briefly revisiting steps elements highlight shortcomings perverse latter single challenges addressed sections note outline modest “adding making consequential hopefully integrating * Università Statale Milano written context RESCEU (Reconciling economic resceu eu) funded Council (Advanced Grant no 340534) 2 Commission Flash Eurobarometer 430/2016 R Still United Diversity? State Address Florence May https://stateoftheunion eu/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2017/05/The-State-of-the-Union-Address-by-Rainer-Bauböck pdf A bit history modern born French Revolution Declaration Human Citizens’ (1789) identified “natural sacred inalienable” based fact men “political association” tasked defending safeguarding Thus citoyen bearer natural state-backed guarantees exercise During nineteenth century pre-eminent association became nation nation-state) Membership entity began called advent mass democracy “nationality” filter prior very legitimacy person’s presence territory assumed “assigning states” 4 giving “right have rights”5 participation collective decisions Historically contents citizenship/nationality appeared much earlier than slow ordinary essentially meant becoming subject novel duties: paying taxes serving army Mass conscription element nation-building contributed turning into fully-fledged communities sharing identity “destiny” symbolic charges implied possibility sacrifice Territorial borders came “inviolable” boundaries defended usque effusionem sanguinis Bounding promoted which turn strengthened affectual normative loyalty vis-à-vis authorities binding link taxation strong Up World War indirect remained far most important source revenue Personal were legally introduced end beginning twentieth acquired quantitative relevance second half words used Northern Southern testify varied greatly: think Scandinavian ska/skatt (which means common treasury ) neo-Latin impôt imposta impuesta evoke subtraction) introduction entitlements subjective greatly salience But imposed “Bismarckian” systems compulsory programmatic benefits tax-funded universalistic weaker UK example civic reciprocity so when means-tested pension 1908 elderly ladies countryside brought flowers food post officers once week paid “free” allowance 6 Trente Glorieuses (especially rights) started weaken phenomenon noted 1950 T H Marshall himself observed increasingly invoked defense ignoring “the corresponding … [which] require man liberty submit question demands government they acts inspired lively responsibility community” 7 Such constantly eroding since 1950s “middle mass” employees pensioners growth spending accompanied 1990s survey shown vast majority pay too receive consider Brubaker Nationhood France Germany Cambridge: Cambridge Press Arendt’s famous formula See Arendt Origins Totalitarianism New York: Harcourt Brace & Co 1951 J Harris Private Lives Public Spirit: History Britain 1870-1914 Oxford: Oxford 1993 Bottomore Class London: Pluto p untouchable property When Italian trade unions supported hugely unbalanced system various occasions workers hurled iron bolts leaders: striking departure times old office indeed retrenched couple decades access services conditional even “contractual” (i e responsibility-sensitive) field unemployment assistance big “elephants” (pensions health care) reigned prevailing justificatory narrative focused here cost containment sustainability EU” Marshallian “lively responsibility” severed duties” seem gone lost appealing today limited purchase Even during crises emergencies consensus building must stay clear duty-talk Enter analysis Paul Magnette distinction “isopolitical” “sympolitical” drawn law war practices ancient Greece) 8 Isopolitical were: confer upon individuals belonging given space another enjoy recognised Sympolitical “vertical”: stem takes participating say content predominantly sympolitical: scope decided central democratic procedures Only case isopolitical g allow citizen freely whatever care provided local level choices subnational federations sympolitical later appearance still play lesser compared unitary states: federated units preserved substantial autonomy Here federal limits itself guaranteeing nondiscrimination What citizenship? exclude (most notably right elect Parliament) almost entirely derivative basically entitles holders treated equals attached passport crosses internal border True adopted Charter Fundamental recently launched initiative Pillar rather respect legislative really add anything catalogue already protections (transfers services) directly supranational exist (e Fund) accessed regional regulatory measures gender equality employment protection) transposed legislation become operative if concern cases P Idea Colchester: ECPR 2005 binger S Leibfried F G Castles (eds Federalism Welfare State: Experiences jurisdictional rulings Court Justice (CJEU) result request side As ones place same obligations force country destination: security We define “isopolitics” generates visible type Stay-at-home obliged room mobiles share own (an identity-thick rights-thick space) bear “hospitality” Empirical studies demonstrate driven benefit tourism aggregate tends receiving disaggregate (this territorial area sector field) negative externalities produced greater positive influx decrease locally contingently availability scarce resources jobs hospital beds emergency housing school places 10 true necessary public investments areas11 remains increased overall problem pressure originated unprecedented needs educational spatial congestion segregation on) significant great number “blame Brussels” because rules come Brussels Contrary happens domestic rests regulation allocation provisions extractions conferring authority) obstacles expand budget powers (and are) huge; 1970s coordination instead supranationalisation probably feasible solution strategy caused serious asymmetries: matter empowered relatively constituency (perceived) expenses majorities natives 12 medium countries always lived region where hardly expect themselves On average nationals never visited watched TV read book language internet goods abroad surprising many perceive immigrants loss opportunities perceptions educated poorer areas vulnerability higher immigration seen threat competition values identities Free expanded options (freedoms faculties) disturbed ligatures thus tend generate grievances easily politicised above-mentioned (cultural) transformation “property rights” parallel erosion offered fertile ground spread resentments feelings relative deprivation dynamics met promises Quite contrary provoked sort boomerang effect involves generating “we” nature Evaluation Final Report January 2014 11 argued others De Witte (ed Freedom under attack: worth 2016/69 Florence: capacity transnational nurture identification seems paradoxically L Damay Mercenier ‘Free Movement Citizenship: virtuous circle?’ Journal 23(8) 2016 pp 1139-1157 encounters mobilisation different aptly put Middelaar goal “Hurray twenty-seven countries! been: Polish plumbers coming blame!”13 remedy failure? correct remedial address distinct challenges: 1) deactivating current vicious disintegrative circle rebalancing system; 2) rebalanced nly after meeting attaching (as proposal) Deactivating achieved complementary ways: partial movers forms empowerment time being unrealistic imagine responses creating i basis joint decision provide compensations mentioned felt certain occupational establishment something like Fund ease (or generally) could serve (better: subnational) applications selection criteria adequate similar fund 2008 Brown (rather inconsiderately) scrapped Cameron 2010 creation pan-European highly welcomed (see table Annex) Empowering promising step unpack addition regulations opening up find facilitating sponsored view easing supporting cross transactions mention: platforms EURES network exchange programs Erasmus e-health quick travelling including EU-wide 112 -– service crime victims additional planned future digital gateway counsel cross-border situations disability tangible potentially wide: goes well affecting travelers tourists patients students consumers awareness thing popularize wider disconnecting thick doing introduce (with identifier) enhance to) privileges US pre-requisite contacts administration code codice fiscale requested application dedicated plastic identifying each resident) Passage Haven Yale 2013 261 taxpayer Smartly now card: carta sanitaria Health Service evokes idea entitlement associated clever 14 ambitious direct stake stay-at-homers implies Those opt staying provides offering transferable drawing kin sons daughters wishing move? (each having value) aimed cashed covering extra Every worker entitled voucher just transfer young search job endowing One might using lifelong learning activities (and/or short periods) wish long term use temporary increasing labour trans-border regions stakes schemes childcare education training justified mere monetary unification Providing compensate partially often disruptive markets 16 Making guaranteed liberal nation-state ways complementing known (social) (in part isopolitical) augmented guarantee consular finding outside represented novelty interpreted branching external extra-EU) sphere continues underestimate –in control-oriented- administrative papers forging belongingness interesting reconstruction Torpey Invention Passports: Surveillance 2000 importance symbols everyday see McNamara Everyday 2015 kickoff supra ft evolution counterpart dynamic affected past regime period led completion virtually types market-compatibility scrutiny wake maximalist interpretation M Poaires Maduro Striking Elusive Balance Between Economic Alston ed 1999) Lisbon possible countermovement Monetary adjustments clash principles Facilitating upskilling absence logic facilitated deregulations pertinence difference residence 17 burgundy-coloured passport-based channel “embrace” citizen-members 18 currently studying front along occurrence terrorist attacks “solidarity”) terrorism persons killed injured line good establishing sending signal activism fast growing popular decade created: Globalisation Adjustment plant restructuring closure Aid Deprived Persons extreme poverty Benefits recipients character limit minimum seek credit prescribing indicate provenance endpoints delivery chain instrument linking presidency (following preparatory Commission) cyclical possibly blocks operate indirectly Given extremely render accruing ultimately evident Survey data show Finally brand sympolitical) insuring against risks (unemployment maternity etc ): 29th 28th Brexit) separate homogeneous across circulating ever 1980s 19 Annex advantages financial (real perceived) stemming inflow families scenario catalyze functional reconfiguration economy due course break path towards risk pooling 20 aother Spiro ‘The (Dwindling) bligations Citizenship’ Wm Mary Bill Rts 899 http://scholarship wm edu/wmborj/vol21/iss3/6; Bosniak Aliens’ 56 Soc Text 29 1998; Passports merely control To States “passport valuable document” above D Peters Vansteenkiste Thirteenth Leuven: Acco Cross-border experimented Directive 2003/41/EC Almost 700 000 See: https://eiopa europa eu/Publications/Reports/EIOPA-BoS-16-222_2016%20market%20development%20report%202016 Adding desirable? feasible? “duty-free”: (art TFEU) So consist complying potential Would desirable heavier burden Union? classical (prior it: “subjectship”) historically consisted present former absolved income/wealth extent co-payments fees-for-service mandatory exception rule: replaced voluntary professional armies widespread anti-tax voters imposition explicit recourse “the Europeanised taxes” VAT counterproductive 22 “for Europe” nudging incentives filling taxpayers option earmark per thousand) institutions: churches philanthropic third humanitarian institutions parties associations 0 8% (taxpayers choose church list denominations) 5% (it earmarked engaged scientific activities) 2% cinquexmille chosen million produces annual billion euros quota favor abovementioned funds) reverse sequence choice: (its unless explicitly opts (“automatic enrollment”) Another co-payment fee-for-service route related added) filtered issuing renewal) fee funding expensive (such system) migration levy 50 pounds permits financed obviously clarifying Beyond civil Voluntary Solidarity Corps Participating stressing acquiring skills experiences morph civilian alternative mandatory; did tassa l’Europa 1997 meet deficit target required join euro Nobody protested: extraordinary defined beneficial whole And prime minister Romano Prodi promised back – promise kept instance 20% finance monthly euro-dividend 200 month theglobaljournal net/article/view/1038/ voluntarily 23 Although remaining proper “hard” extractive instruments direction cautious experimental “euro-critical” jumping “duty-free” “duty-heavy” politically dangerous incremental vision Following tradition Max Weber power (Machtquellen) Since relation somebody’s “will” causes behavior somebody else automatically correlative exactly rights? First resources: holding legitimate reasons claim (horizontally fellow-citizens vertically authorities) Secondly enforcement obtained holder activate coercion Thirdly instrumental typically conditions sets (securing bases) advice (enforcement) extension citizenship) contemporary liberal-democratic societies types: adopts norms impinge CJEU mediated courts (if law) empower provision (money infrastructures constituencies smart enhancement packaging (accompanied communication bringing directly) trampoline experimenting Intra-EU (more precisely: reside state) hardest citizenship; differentiates third-country residents marker harmonisation robust consequently traction peculiar features sensitive trends Internally empowers my union point here) justifies expansion accessible everybody: either life-long-learning time) integrated international openness Guard Swiss militia –originally military defence transformed mobilised disasters Externally carries eligibility foreclosed residents) harms unfortunately frequent motto Civis Europaeus Sum acquire meaning My (summarised tables 5) unambitious low-key advantage changes innovations Bing Bang heavy legacy incrementalism rule elaboration grand visions presupposes visionary thinking otherwise purposeless random walk failure Source: Pellagata Can Be Reconciled? Citizen Views Integration Milan at: 40 60 80 100 Poland Spain Sweden EU6 % favour covers migrant 30 70 90 4: Compensating stayers: Enabling (transferable) mobility/upskilling Autonomising movers: Universal (FEAD) 75 9% 76 6% 67 7% 55 Investments severe Financial help face rise foster solidarity? 5: “Social socially oriented compiling Italy’s cinquepermille Fees issuing/renewal (explicitly “protective” functions) services; Joppke* admirably detailed savvy suggestions particularly deliverables beating heart cohesive attach “soft” missing “should” tangentially presumed discussed reasonable answer spirit “incremental” pragmatic larger presumptions However “novel apparently considered model specific All taxes; facultative American following Imperial Roman recruit non-citizens) Hans Kelsen “allegiance” quintessential “political moral” exigency: “There special obligation allegiance Legally general obeying aliens have” wrote “treason” commit; equivalent “sedition” enforceable opposite non-citizens charged non-starter where—as Dimitry Kochenov it—citizenship undergone “liberal de-dutification”3 obvious “dutified” extra-anachronistic leads me presumption Ferrera`s argue guarantor) “lightened” observable entails questionable idealisations feed “affectual decisions” (Ferrera) From conceived “protection rackets”5 normative” attitude appears delusional best Undeniably nationalist reason spill blood duped “state authorities” (who continue asking) isn`t shouldn`t Add decides relicense Monsanto`s Bern General Theory : Harvard 1949 235 Fletcher Loyalty: Essay Morality Relationships 1993; chapter ‘EU Without Duties” 20(4) 482-98 C Inevitable Lightening Sociology 51(1) 9-32 Charles Tilly ‘War rganized Crime’ Peter Evans et al Bringing Back 1985 glyphosate controversial weed killer strongly suspected Organisation carcinogenic humans presumably uninfluenced multinational`s formidably resourceful state-dwarfing lobby tranquilizer let “binding decision” Perhaps category mistake deploy concept racket “citizenship” grown flowery “loyalty” coating elementary function begin Citizens every suspicious notionally technocratic humanly fallible liable constraints Karl Marx posthumously redeemed loyalty” elite There problematic “dutify” “moving”—incidentally tiny group five percent mark population—causes harm indemnified writes “has nonmobile citizens” (Ferrera typescript cautiously talks “perception” gives credence proposing “negative externalities” “empower” give dignity ur-trope populists migrants perpetrators More fundamentally buys populists` hideous re-labelling “immigrants” fiscal post-Enlargement mainly single-biggest theme Brexit campaign reward British twice over tax-payers pick bill region-specific infrastructural impasses (schooling transport inevitably slicing citizenry unequal halves absolutely anti-European connotation moving harmful (at rewarded for) confirms demonology binary v maps closely cleavage undergoing largely obliterating classic left-right structured Western politics reconciled doubts allowed compromise structures simply applied situation globally capital diminished judicial contrast traditional eulogises forehead No compensatory via Card” alacrity practicality warm “Europe” nicely describes day Londoner opposing closer Yorker Trump notional province voting r David Goodhart commented opponents` waking “in country” morning June 24 how proponents had before fateful referendum Both camps quite literally inhabit mental physical tied incompatible “Citizenship” obsolete clip ‘European Plans Relicense Controversial Weedkiller’ Guardian February concede Commission`s stubborn multinational backed ‘Citizenship After Trump’ Migration Review Road Somewhere Hurst tie together cohesion bottom-up project survive unlikely cosmetic corrections partisan rift urgent intolerable populist movements entire decisively thrown “closure” spectrum “illiberal states” openly repudiate understood correctly he defends sharpen privileged third-state settled strikes retrograde dispensing welfare) thinning permanent side-effect liberalisation “civilising” nationhood undergirds hard-won achievement liability tribal tightly sealed second-class consult Gulf ironic tame exclusiveness mimic These somewhat grand-scheming objections perhaps plausible sake debate; diminish powerful deeply knowledgeable guard notion duty-full (not moral!) communist Islamic arrogate formatting preferences beliefs follow impairs Schmidt*1 Which entail protect achievements overcoming pitfalls? ‘add stuff’ Joppke’s plea non-exclusive agree Ferrera’s bias horizontally opens nationally shaped financed) ‘detecting flaws’ overlooks genesis crucial understanding Because saw impressive advancement ‘most fundamental status’ (C-184/99 Grzelczyk) van Gend (26/62) Costa (6/64) Cassis de Dijon (120/78) multiple taken granted shapes interpreting objectives contains (four development non-discriminately economically inactive few ties late entering intending contribute (C-333/13 Dano) Behind policymaking Dieter Grimm calls over-constitutionalisation intergovernmental describing policy-rich constitution declaring supreme Court’s interpretations constitutional enshrined forth EU’s judiciary legislature able overrule former’s constitutionalised Next secondary repercussions unable cater equally differences Its ‘one size fits none’ pronounced negotiated regarding singularities seriously legitimised chauvinism background member-state legitimated absent partly far-reaching Styrelsen (C-46/12 2013) 10-12 hours gained Denmark’s generous non-repayable student Labour-activating subsidise poorly Bremen Funding Norface gratefully acknowledged (www transjudfare constitutionalisation: case’ 460-473 Process: Shadow Case forthcoming 2018 implying tax-financed in-work workers’ exploitation Nationally coordinated balance ‘earned’ excluding joined transition toll Overall appear grave lose rich distributed class feels handled free-ride states’ arbitrage Empirically evasion contributing difficulties ends lack undermines alongside Are situation? They links lacks claimed suggestion requiring compensated top Bulgarian payments look Denmark lessen drawback immediate therefore suited ‘hospitality’ sufficiently confusing non-expert transparency further division competences granting cover progress ‘regulation’ ‘allocation’ bolster EU’s added treat newly par ‘earn’ host understand exclusion thin reminding us dangers privilege Intuitively inclusion appeal advanced empirical Highly differentiated rely infrastructure Ruhs Unrestricted Immigration Compatible Inclusive States? (Un)Sustainability Exceptionalism Compas Society 125 Kramer ‘Earning Union: reconstructed’ Yearbook Legal 270-301 Atoyanet ‘Emigration Impact Eastern Europe’ IMF Staff Discussion Note Pons Rotger state: Testing ‘welfare burden’ thesis’ doi:10 1177/1465116517717340 Dustmann Frattini Fiscal Effects UK’ 124 F593–F643 1111/ecoj 12181 Beaudonnet Laurie ‘A threatening horizon: Common Market 1-19 Bruzelius Reinprecht ‘Stratified Limiting doi: 1111/jcms 12555 reminds insufficient proof tread carefully maintain forced fail encompassing race bottom beat right-wing populism liberating embedded undermine republican rest solely anyone extending whose fortunes depend action individually imbued sufficient inclusive transforming neoliberal nightmare fully liberated market-citizen? treatment communities? all-inclusive truly cosmopolitan conception assure fellow losers pitted humankind asked why abandoned Left converse similarly merits surplus functioning failed problems ridden prerequisites developed (welfare) sees ‘incompatible structures’ sides anymore That bode integrate newcomers deal principle Different ill-equipped allocating Non-discrimination neither guidelines treating alike unlike differently depending distinction? Traditionally sustainable heterogeneity simultaneous widening resulted societal backing judicially Has amply demonstrated vote? Community Relying W Scharpf ‘Legitimacy multilevel polity’ Science 2009 173–204 B Rothstein https://www socialeurope eu/white-working-class-abandoned-left Vandenbroucke* ‘some duty’ solutions reconcile feasibility sympathy Joppke’s reaction dispense divided peripheral settling insistence yield justification believe justify framework whereby Reciprocity bridges clarify distinguish three questions: How movement? non-discriminatory active non-active (2)? citizens? Simply postulating begs holds opportunity ‘equal opportunities’ mitigated nuanced postponing transitory period): applies everybody low-skilled high-skilled premised se improve worst-off comparable Rawls’ ‘fair opportunity’ priority ‘difference principle’: Rawls offices) respected inevitable trade-off? regard distributive consequences experiencing observation incurring budgetary losses securing ‘negative externalities’ emigration Therefore divisive today’s tackle demanding realm Amsterdam denying formal substantive emphasized rightly Reinprechtand I:10 (although I’m convinced propose forbids pursue wages traditions wages: wage exclusive domain partners determined regulation: decent universally exceptions sectors protection: don’t boost precarious hyper-flexible segment precariousness flexibility board Or municipalities immigration: safeguard starting Admittedly developing translating realities uphill battle Europe; principled contingent movement: posting supports delivery) constitute well-balanced Posting2 issue EU: difficult dumping regime: sent short-term employed affiliated Simultaneously seeking regular contracts corollary implies) allowing unfair living impossible Moreover imbalance B: ‘non-dumping’ prefer (compared ‘posting’ option) unavailable fair well-delineated non-discrimination? grounds efficient factors production) ‘posted worker’ employee employer carry Posted temporarily contract (‘sending’) posted basic Basic conundrum ACCESS EUROPE 2017/02 Available SSRN: https://ssrn com/abstract=3011847 facilitates previous section tabled refer efficiency independent incorporated she works enjoys Belgian Belgium sustains tolerate territory: recipe establishes sense: states; simultaneously protects circles Earned coexistence ‘earned citizenship’ tension bounded dependents) simple dichotomy tenable “as unreasonable Member State” Dano-judgment stresses refusing grant obtain State’s assistance” Dion sketches combination continuity change situates broader “neoliberal communitarianism” “combines communitarian neo-liberal emphasis individual’s achieve labels ‘neo-liberal’ “it becomes ‘earning’ convert values” traits pushed confines taking cautionary notes reading oblige comprehensive restrictive avoided Dano C-333/13 C: 2014:2358 para 78 Access Assistance Reconstructed’ quote 277; 272 delineated non-nationals domains compassion dominate assistance) Union’ logics legitimately conjointly: Economically involuntary inactivity illness) fairness serves her) determines foremost Under bond citizen’s ‘unreasonable (these substantiate exercised state’s ‘unreasonable’ dependence Obviously setting complex task raises questions Verschueren pointed narrow judgment referred exact ‘integration country’ ‘real link’ country? demand judiciously Also next importantly lead ‘enter your risk’ (whereby facto tolerated marginalisation am complimentary consistently: mobility’ (some fit mobility’) complexities tensions illegitimate regulating consistently citizen: impose ‘Preventing ‘Benefit Tourism’ Narrow Broad Interpretation Possibilities ffered ECJ Dano?’ 52 363-390 Heindlmaier Blauberger ‘Enter risk: practice’ West 1080/01402382 1294383 forward inspiring heated presents concrete counter-productive His addresses Bauböck: pertinent shall sketched ‘small citizens’ concerns confront proposes introducing ‘dutifying’ ‘Social pressing examine ‘free movers’ nor materialize engagement described researchers fact-finding mission actually outcomes Much assumptive situational demonstrates net contributors purse findings portraying corporate estate hosting financing stratified2 states4 Negative confronted means? Ordinary blame Copenhagen 124(580) 593–643; Ruist access: Swedish experience’ 35(1) 19–39 http://journals sagepub com/eprint/TESAUcFRQ4jVRvp9aQkb/full JCMS: http://onlinelibrary wiley com/doi/10 12555/full Your Own Risk: Practice’ 40(6) 1198-1217 Hassel Steen Knudsen Wagner ‘Winning Battle Losing War: Labour Institutions Denmark’ 1218-39 decide investment Domestic held accountable implementation lowering reducing safety directive concerning monitoring introduces construction effectiveness again depends allocated shares ineffective ‘blame-game’ disregard Brussels’ adoption unintended surface fix Changing thresholds Ministers Parliament deviates intentions Otherwise considerable variation prove outflow challenge corrective mechanisms exemptions adoptable disturb uniformity discourse seekers dumpers; recall avoiding citizenship’s timely Bridging ‘mobile’ Ever Powerful Court?: Constraints OUP ‘Brien E Spaventa Corninck ‘Comparative 2015-the Concept Worker Article TFEU Certain Non-Standard Forms Employment’ characteristically sharp imaginative comment Rather framed grounding “In sentiments” wonders Currently secures (to activated involved border) fraction (primarily amounts population) broaden deepen immobile ‘integrative role’ judge successful assuming endorse insofar ‘I EU…’ say: “We elites?) desirable; get publics that? By significance ‘Feed them’1” odd perspective Imagine asks: ‘And augment you propose?’ be: ‘Because assent undermining movement’ that’s asking sure nothing intended feasibly sustain skepticism yet lacking sharpened reject (despite marshaled indicates direction) abandon misguided? King’s London Grand Inquisitor says Dostoevsky Brothers Karamazov Pevear Volokhonsky (trans Vintage 1991 253 them? publically minded rejects (a) voted Remain) (b) formally (c) (but extended [TCNs] well)? sketch addressing essential aspect Single recommended device production productivity gains expands choice gainful interests brings costs—costs furthermore fall everyone (albeit heavily contested) shift technology candlesticks electric bulbs bargaining candlestick makers displace entirely) supply cheaper unorganised labor downward immigrant-heavy (education healthcare arrived concentrate senders suffer brain drain skilled moves borne well-off disadvantaged Our explanation accrue mostly Consider peoples polities economies territories sovereignty stand gain expose longer collaboration actors Greece ‘Basic Income Conundrum Than Solution’ SSRN Contemporary calibrate account CEEC happy served relieving excessive Kahanec ‘Labor Mobility Enlarged Union’ Handbook Economics Constant Zimmerman Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing 137-52 references therein EUD Thym Market’ elsewhere5 deciding ought grounded reciprocity: owe return submission supervision captured hypothetical distribution owed gains—which secured convergence Market—and indemnification little prevent avoid (though stopping (recall [a] [b]) disproportionately whom according reciprocity-based outlined reinforces (modeled vocational suffering above) wonder behalf ‘empowering stayers’? includes things invoke points socioeconomic Rawls’s Fair Equality pportunity vastly states) specifically Recall rationale fault dependents (Here register disagreement respective constrained 7) ‘Solidarity 33 213-41; Problems Prospects’ Philosophical Foundations Dickson Eleftheriadis 2012 384-412; SangiovanniThe Bounds Solidarity: Distributive tension—and resolve it—between commitments useful berman ‘What stay? human value’ unfairly disadvantages derived finally buttress namely kind protecting mitigating inequalities exportability jobseekers limitations easier someone Latvia EU-funded advocated dampen betrays anachronistic revival Romantic Allegiance death ethnic myths suspicion foundation stones invokes none worries (whose unavoidably exclusionary ring falsely ‘benefit tourists’ CJEU) burdens’ threaten artificial divide advocates) TCNs not) ready emphasize ‘citizenship duties’ would) outmoded prosaic one’s civility toleration flow ‘sense justice’ interpret suggested compatible acceptance culturally fiscally polity [c] above)? straightforward resident participate society’s life relevant sense) (even inactive) willy-nilly enacted (politically ‘Stratified Citizenship’ ‘Global State’ Philosophy Affairs 35 2007 2-39 movement) qualify functionalism opinion) conclusion him sought functional-empirical inspire perspectives depart moved fringe centre urgently needed academic debates ratification (1993) reality ‘multinational insiders outsiders Accordingly citizens3 fulfilled destination perception politicisation tourism’ Despite dominant frame media main Due rates empirically ’ analyses (insurance) ‘over-fulfil’ mean fulfils s/he services? helpful precondition (subsistence) so! Nevertheless putting arising arrangements (ESF) organisations necessarily England localities — government! Aron ‘Is Multinational possible?’ (4) 1974 638-656 intend habitually differs periods subcategories ; Tax-financed State’ https://doi org/10 ESF FEAD ‘European’ origin destination) thereby Job-seeking Central Security Coordination exportable consequence requirements considers Minimum Scheme supra-national job-seeking ability reforming laudable enforce standards laws!7 worthwhile ‘accept’ appointing UK’s chief Irrespective participants shy away getting sui generis (con)federal jurisdictions learn examples: North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund NDB; 1867-1870) America constituent Furthermore subsistence Bismarck poor relief NDB Consequently Unterstützungswohnsitzgesetz (law domicile 1870 person irrespective duration Supreme ruled California clause unconstitutional arguing: “Citizens wherein Chase ‘Semi-Sovereign Migrant Need Strong Capacities’ Seeleib‐Kaiser Khan ‘UK appoints enforcer crack down abuse’ Times com/content/b61d7370-d31e-11e6-9341-7393bb2e1b51 select (Saenz Roe; 526 U 489 (1999): 511)9 overcome differentiation abolish put: question! ‘Freedom Right Income: Comparing EU’ prepared Annual Conference Committee ISA Carolina Chapel Hill 22-24 Like criticism critique “moving” portray “buys populists’ ‘immigrants’” apparent denial existence adverse aware fears ungrounded criticises presume emphasised despite clearer picture false done exceed “produced mobiles” “social dumping” moreover mentions Independently Take well-educated emigrate Netherlands (brain drain) experiences? talented Italians attracting Once producing Second mover Someone stayer tomorrow static Not compelled Third doesn’t free-movement “to ‘hospitality’” Fourth unavoidable Fifth although Utrecht 26 shared affects decline run enough systemic origins malaise things: bearing reduce Sangiovanni’s debate) agreement significantly “if board” claims asks “All regulation” enforced admits “developing emphasises “there cohesion” establish achieving broadening well-known reachable “incrementalism today” solvable strategies radical Republic nation-states cities defend utopia emphasise EU-citizenship couldn’t fulfil Ulrike Guérot fosters imply participatory Unfortunately stuff “EU-citizenship container” saying enormous Warum Europa eine Republik werden muss! Eine politische Utopie edition Bonn: Dietz Discussions tended mobilise divergent ingenious treats instrumentally: promoting amongst conceive analogous wean degree (Habermas statement approach) offers fine denationalising moral uphold (actually silent assume de-dutification far) occupy mid-point transitionary phase seeks reconciliation pragmatically endeavour normatively justifiable conventional supra- trans-national inter-national declared beg reasoning implicit standard functionalist contends interconnected managing scaling cosmopolitanism likewise remove unequally certainly Whether adequately appropriately all? surely pandering nationalism replicating characteristics Habermas Identity: Reflections Future Praxis 12(1) accounts thesis see: Duties’ 482-498; Kostakopolou Writing Future’ 13(5) 2004 623-646 ‘Between Cosmopolis Community: Legitimacy Peoples’ Tierney (ed) Nationalism Globalisation: Settings Challenges Hart Ch 207-232 28 term? arises faults devised rendering governed encourage Pace de-dutifyers unheeded upholding coherently Meanwhile impartial suitably constraint rulers influence ‘right rights’ Indeed effectively expenditure suitable secure rights; agreed emerge arise involvement romantic colouring accepting game acknowledging overlook self-evident properties spontaneously Many academics overly sanguine judicialisation EUs occurred lex mercatoria remarks her deployment litigation exploiting terminology allows interest enterprises venue biased inaccessible critics injustice dominated colonisation exploitative deals superior domination Yet acknowledges close struggle gave leverage wars fight prompting `The “Right Rights”: Practice Constitution Warleigh (eds) Continuum 2001 41-70 ‘Rights Democracy’ Critical 15(4) 2012a 449-471 Europe? What’s Wrong Kochenov’s Account Rights’ 21(4) 558-565 2015b Isiksel Functional Constitution: Constitutionalism 142-143 adult suffrage abide collectively delineating reports culture belong attachments deplores reactionary throw-backs operation realisation air disagreements deliberate assumes events unfolding Catalonia deemed numbers willing militate embody prevented rapid supra-nationalism unfeasible priori achievable undesirable plurality combining pursuing lives democracies variety Within diverse unit inefficient inequitable increases prospect tyranny consistent minorities checks balances ensuring collaborative mutually checking balancing manner Against characterisation comprise transitional gradual components designed supplant reported arrangement undercutting self-government tackled involve injustices include prevention egregious infringements climatic catastrophe feature subsume facilitate interactions elsewhere imperfect conforms involving two-level reach consensual agreements representatives winning ‘republican intergovernmentalism’ assimilated critiques discrimination long-term concerned though viability diversity ‘An Closer Peoples: Republican Intergovernmentalism Demoi-cracy Representation 35(5) 499-516 limiting vote opposed elections unwilling commit party strictly speaking contracting Hence logical stems ‘inter-national’ ‘sympolitical’ recognition remarked directives enumerated Treaties aspirational Grzelczek distorted of) lies Similarly tackles genuine innovative approach inter- stealth jurisprudence officially announced birth quickly dismissed “little cynical relations”1 “pie sky” longer: Today hotly contested nearly published mirror heard arenas analytical reflection somehow reflect heat shout insults disagree contestation indicators strength myself well-considered erode strains magic movement–social ‘social pillar’ fortifying ‘prosaic (Andrea Sangiovanni) blunt edges sharper acknowledge ‘permissive consensus’ sometimes steady halting retreating shatters easy convince improvements coalitions fighting environment attempts win votes arrive focusing preliminary answered differ theirs embrace contextual purely destiny “means markets” Weiler Winter Curtin Kellerman Reforming Debate Hague/Boston: Kluwer 1996 Jessurun D’ liveira ‘Union Pie Sky?’ Rosas Search Order Sage 1995 32 regards lexically conflicts redistributive Let sound stop EU? concluding countries? Switzerland Norway extend Canada Australia Zealand? existed accession Ireland independently Zealand South rapidly possess nationalities realise Magnette’s alone explain involuntarily insufficiently ” answering pillar contributory Vandenbroucke’s nagging theorists: borders? live interdependent Conditions scale disparities wealth Africa Does African conceptions states? Unlike expansive raise conflict John thought beings prima facie ‘Migration Porous Boundaries States’ Transformations 516-531 movement-based enable price realised finds nation-state; (through colonialism actors) authoritarian groups) desire Portugal forever Threats shape wing corporations shrinking demographic weight stabilising pool threats formed reinforced round amending rational self-interests exit illustrates Michel Barnier tries drive exposed costly leaving particularistic communicated commitment interests” thinks motivate trans- Catalan secession crisis illustrate “Where spheres Spanish separatism predicaments exiteers unionists represent(ed) populations wins loses rooted lot hard-to-predict campaigns pretty overwhelming drives resentment 34 advocates separation severely damaging represent won comes democracy; committed union; controversy DNA essay: Art says: “Every replace substitutive adds transforms memberships below non-national municipal encompasses determining circumstances descent parents territory) naturalisation procedures; membership; include) municipality counts ‘sanctuary cities’ undocumented deportation oppose admission emerges 20(2) defines Foremost employment-related upholds Conflicts pervasive consolidated ultimate arbiters interpreters regulates competencies interprets treaty-based constitutions pluralism5 Levels 15(5) 751-764 1999 Conflict institutionalised authoritatively resolved court acting daring declarations destined state” followed telling depriving citizenship7 acutely fill lacunas expansionary matters regularly retractive ‘clarifications’ institutionalisation politicising statuses branch bay Scottish attempts) unlock cage caught unprepared lay advisors bold ideas legislators money progressive contributor recipient poisonous perfectly change11 getter coherent platform chance electoral pollster predicted victories der Bellen Austria Emmanuel Macron unabashedly pro-EU Eurosceptic ones? animal eventually refers endorsing persistent trope supporters shows imagination imitate template ‘provincialisation’ gradually transferring Union; republic date N Grzelczyk d’Aide Sociale d’ ttignes-Louvain-la-Neuve (2001) C-184/99 Janko Rottmann Freistaat Bayern (2010) C-135/08 Ruiz Zambrano (2011) C-34/09 Shirley McCarthy Secretary Home C-434/09; Murat Dereci Bundesministerium für Inneres C-256/11; Elisabeta Florin Jobcenter Leipzig (2914) Euro 36 consolidation took trigger confederation federation realising dream dreaming examples spelling implications federalist project: “For fails mention post-Civil 14th amendment unified 1871 entailed downgrading Länder henceforth masters devotes attention terminological duties; reciprocal states’ determine jurisdiction residing (yet) diplomatic bound accept ‘transnational matches synonymous postnational ample literature transnationalism emigrants Again dual expat constructed possesses transformative arena extraterritorial diasporas resource inter-state tamed theory developments stuck phenomena straddle Schönberger Unionsbürger: Europas föderales Bürgerrrecht vergleichender Sicht Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck Moraru Protecting (unrepresented) intertwining roles PhD 37 Nowhere triggered top-down adaptation enhances determination specification inherent structure Politicising struggles Thinking pushes teleology pulls merging tune evolved guarantor correspondingly leaves fiercely located Luxembourg Strasbourg staged election Liberals instrumentally egalitarians chances implement liberals deliver strongest input authorised co-citizens theories intrinsic realises albeit picked happen permissive liberally elites pacify Ernest Gellner Danegeld output straightjackets forces deficits emerging reflected attitudes fine-tuned combine tragic complexity Nations Blackwell 1983 Europeans’ in: Attack: Worth Defending Core Citizenship? (F eds 19-20 38 experiments inventions guide maybe mobilising seized weapon error seize horn minority grab rough woman Greek mythology Her hence tool intriguing insightful reactions reacting relate try mitigate winners appreciate caring nonetheless doubt hoping gulf pro-European witnessing emergence lower “nudged” feeling Similar behavioural economics expectation Very Recent refrain ownership hope instill Hoogheand Marks ‘Cleavage meets crises: Lipset Rokkan cleavage’ online http://dx doi 1080/13501763 1310279 Experiencing Solaz Elsas ‘Practising preach: promotes willingness redistribute Union” 1370005 Bechtel Hainmueller Y Margalit ‘Preferences Redistribution Divide Eurozone Bailouts’ 58 835-856 Over aged 17-30 participated unique youth participate? informative experience peers going interact (immobile) self-selection Europhiles: People self-select reaffirm pre-existing surrounded like-minded sum European-minded suggest reify legitimise transfers “compensation losers” offer “mobility bonus” attract bonuses activating unemployed usually “compensation” “nudge” intra-European reservations premium endeavor Plus university lie socio-economic divides “echo chambers” trying co-nationals answers repeating Europhile mantra http://europa eu/youth/sites/default/files/evs_factsheet_and_impacts_apr_2016 Mitchell ‘Rethinking ‘Erasmus effect’ identity’ 53(2) 330-348 Wilson Expect ‘Erasmus Generations’?’ 49 (5) 2011 1113-1140 Madama*1 ‘big issues’ ‘catalogue’ widely unity multi-level exploit legitimating claiming polity-building maintenance undermined elements: scarcely Citizens’ actions unknown 63% co-financed conceals countries: 80% drops 40% 27% 25% sinking 16% 14% Denmark6 figures confirm efforts surprise strand documented translation goals street-level “variety disjunctive influences” higher-level unraveled frontlines providers arms so-called mile final chain) government/political controls incentive “capture” (legal and/or financial) degli Studi Europe) Cf Flora Kuhnle Urwin Formation Nation-Building Stein Clarendon 1–91 Obinger http://ec eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index cfm/ResultDoc/download/DocumentKy/79239 Regional endowed 351 approximately 2014-2020 cycle co-finances ERDF Cohesion fund) competitiveness correlation per-capita ‘Politicians Managers Street-Level Bureaucrats: Influences Implementation’ JPART 453–476 (p 454) Keiser ‘Street-Level Bureaucrats Administrative Power Manipulation Federal Disability Programs’ Quarterly 1(2) 144-164 42 antidotes syndrome end-recipients terminal program March confronting non-financial needy brief clothing counselling beneficiaries re-integrate stand-alone deprived people’s capacities difficulty Participation prepare Operation Programmes (OP) illustrating implementing OP aid measures; II co-financing steering management street relies partner food-banks charities charge Forum’s respects Regulation11 details comply requests “during inform placing poster (minimum A3) emblem location readily requirement stigmatising delivery”; “any document attendance certificate operational Fund” Breaking rate 15% eligible expenditures reduced 0% Regulation 223 /2014 43 front-line stakeholders grouping EU-level NGOs Network organises face-to-face meetings virtual ambitiously ‘civic’ grass roots compliant delivering agencies provisions? credit? Card? Introducing Card’ envisaged riforma col cacciavite metaphor: screwdriver effectiveness) Insurance Card (EHIC) medical pilot disabilities travel Professional simplifying qualification facilitators highlights low-educated think/feel belief emotional reaction) penalty beliefs/feelings factually unwarranted profusely facts euro-skepticism sensible de-activate orientations including) up-skilling low-qualified targets adults weaknesses knowledge incidence 63 quarter 25-64 Skills Guarantee Commission’s kill birds stone: vulnerable (normative eu/newsroom/document cfm?doc_id=40723 Recommendation Upskilling Pathways: Opportunities Adults http://eur-lex eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=OJ:JOC_2016_484_R_0001 Agenda COM(2016) 381 eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/HTML/?uri=CELEX:52016DC0381&from=EN 44 rationale) competitive (functional loyal supportive such: Standing shoulders perceptive ventures explore fashion ‘social’ overriding principal guardians believes sickness age encourages heritage civilised society” integrity (by-)product sorely perversely Fritz Wolfgang Streeck intricate connection discretionary reflation demand-deficient improvement sick ‘by stealth’ slipstream objective seal currency institutional breakthroughs ’supply side’ revolution riding architects believed Act (SEA) (EMU) keep ‘wasteful’ check primacy prohibition revert devaluation post-hoc prioritising principle’ implicitly self-determination pains wave enlargement withdrawal tragically Kingdom vocal scorning leave sentiment presented electorates primary raison d’être Bolkestein Leaders Crossroads Essays Heinemann 1963 74 Model: Coping Diversity’ 40(4) 2002 645–70; Buying Time: Delayed Capitalism Verson 46 sold enlarge pie conjectured impairing freedom-of-mobility damage Scharpf’s dystopia ruinous Competitiveness Index (2014) high-spending Finland hovering 30% GDP hurt presses quantity prosperity Suzanne anti-discrimination part-time parental modelled performing lowest denominator latest waves conjunction fallout magnifying asymmetric shocks measure re-insurance trapping debtor ‘bad’ imbalanced equilibria sadly predicament politicians (mis-)fortune renege eurosceptic pressures water ruling governments’ anti-EU right-populist ardent defenders post-1945 ‘natives’ proclaiming retirement protectionism ban bidding farewell eurozone departed entrenched worldview anchored conservatives democrats championed intrusive cost-containment bailouts periphery ‘structural reform’ Mario Draghi interviewed Wall Street height Eurocrisis model’ ‘long gone’ ongoing overnight “political-institutional vacuum” emerged successfully nostalgic image paradise mainstream in- family Juncker Youth ErasmusPro Scoreboard assessing Governing Effective Democratic? Grauwe Fragile Eurozone’ CEPS Document 346 Brussels: Publication Office 47 ‘triple A’ pursued seemingly uncoordinated ideational paradigm inequality (youth-)unemployment relegated ‘auxiliary’ subordinated Six-Pack Compact (2012) Two-Pack (2013) balanced budgets spite post-crisis lip ‘default’ retrenchment questioned (youth) breeding xenophobic Brexit-type contingencies relegating proviso ‘subsidiarity’ conjured ‘happy’ equilibrium crystal-clear wishful conceptualisation destabilising re-confirmation imperative fronts: priorities caveat implicates Civil operationally precise retroactively Hungary accepted joining likes Viktor Orban Jaroslaw Kaczynski weakening breed altogether ‘not proportionate claimant’ obliges interfere modify volatile ‘positive capacities’ ‘bending’ intention ‘how much’ ‘what services’ categories (deserving) ‘at expense’ contradictions ‘compensatory approach’ de-activating wants ‘Toward Investment Growth Including Implementing 2014-2020’ ffice Genschel Jachtenfuchs ‘From powers: refugee theory’ 48 ‘who compensate?’; ‘for exactly?’ much?’ ‘through service?’ pay?’ losers?’ brain-drain college graduates austerity reflex? doubtful juncture bewildering improved policy-evaluation ‘adding enrichment concur re-direction puts roundabout gradualist assertively problem-solving capabilities semi-sovereign plead perform promotion reinforce possession intimates guess in-between stance Bellamy’s monograph coined assertive (active) prosper zone resilience matched competent painful stress overwhelm disciplinary intrusion tough tunnel contrasts sharply ‘disciplining devices’ underway presentation comparison ambivalent economy’ ambition laid Articles recommendation well-functioning endorsed Summit Jobs Gothenborg November latent interfering portfolio ‘fair-playing-field’ provisos work-life pensions Significant devoted ‘capacitating’ echo Package Barroso urging advance ‘prepare’ respond investing childhood ‘repair’ misfortune moments articulated ensure empty shell pre-empt modes techniques bailout administered Troika ECB ‘re-insurance scheme’ macroeconomic stabilisation uptakes downturns pan-Eurozone breathing asymmetrically downturn faster recovery contribution) discount Stability Pact (SGP) Inspired taxonomy assessment: labor-market life-course transitions; upkeeping stock capabilities; (3) maintaining minimum-income buffers micro-level macro-economic aging buffer nets stabilise business upgrading bearings relating ‘capacitating roof adjustable bundles pre-school skill family-care improving gender-equal lifespan matching ‘make transitions pay’ equalize women mixes returns bases (child-)poverty dependency viable responsibilities Uses jealously remit spend wise demography organisation except advocate fostering adaptable family-friendly relations careers engaging administrations expert committees reflex strike generation Monti allegedly intimated 50% representation Granting manoeuvre (within bounds) imbalances ageing Exempting SGP trampling struggling abandoning female medium-term attainment That’s female) huge centres Finnish Slovenia ramp regressive discounting monitored Semester alignments (universal) Euro-member incentivising carrot stick conditionality streamline Employment Initiative (YEI) (EGF) Strategic (EFSI) Plan positively resilient Looking ahead dire magnitude hangover sovereign debt dismal fixes ‘handmaiden’ Zeitlin Governance: Amsterdam: 51 prohibited chips commits integrates 1959 rtega y Gasset ‘reality closed frontier ’1 opened ‘renovation’ centrifugalism renovation (future) ‘soft’ bind ‘hard’ steps; a) b) c) incorporate outset confinement rethink functionality ‘instrumental infrastuctures constituencies’ preferable draw compelling Bauböck) Material impression ‘purchasing’ ‘Europe’ confirmed Pro-Leave Wales ‘Brexit’ Referendum substitute incorporation durable meaningful encompass contained subsequent articles ‘citizens Treaties’ candidates non-judicial redress stated TEFU word ‘shall’ categorical underpin ‘civil observe (Article TEU) Warwick Ortega Man Ruskin House Allen Unwin 210 54 ‘shall bodies offices agencies’ dutiful movers; inter alia graft onto Nor compare citizenships conclude underdeveloped duties) abstract autonomous unshielded grounds; (for Job-seekers’ allowances anticipated contribution-based job-seeker’s assess accentuated preservation hit nevertheless unsubstantiated draws narratives discourses uneasiness solidarity’ vouchers) accurately ‘demonology (Joppke 2); ‘divide stayers’; depict ‘mobility virtuous’ considerations ‘uprootedness’ settlement Everything sad unacceptable xenophobia panoply derive ne C-224/98 Marie-Nathalie D’Hoop l’emploi [2002] ECR I-6191; C-138/02 Brian Francis Collins [2004] I-2703; Joined Cases C-22/08 C-23/08 Athanasios Vatsouras Arbeitsgemeinshcaft (ARGE) Nurnberg 900 Josif Koupatantze Alrbeitsgemeinschaft Judgement consumer protected transcend ‘winners’ ‘losers’ Whatever ethnicity religion sexual orientation trust strangers radius self-interest calculations misperceptions ‘others’ non-nationals) justifying fairer) pillar3 [3] duty-bearers? multi-layered comprising ‘its peoples’ 3(1) confine envisage ‘variable geometry’ meritorious (operational 2016) President displayed leadership commencing plan proclaimed jointly Gothenburg excellent differentiate Their institution (Principle 12) dignified 14) 16) homeless combatting homelessness 19) 10) dismissal (Principles ‘grabbing dilemma’ ‘risking bull’ 21st TEU’s version directs humane cooperate Besides draft included environmental duty: healthy coupled preserve it’ inserted Part stating ‘all display rejection October https://ec eu/commission/priorities/deeper-and-fairer-economic-and-monetary-union/european-pillar-social-rights_en marginalisation’ ‘possible TFEU’s are: standing exclusion; applying policy-making’ [5] duty-bearers bodies) 41(2) affect adversely file (be stayers) 41(3) ‘have servants performance accordance separated epitomises disrespect contempt procedural legality Forward reveals post-Marshallian policy-practitioners readers Instead devoting precious energies wasted frictions unnecessary quarrels thoughts dimension) self flourishing restrict others; implicated perfect reflects ‘Towards constructive 4(4) 337-58 social’ Isin Nyers Routledge 434 reflections engages starts description tacit evaporated influences bring convincingly diagnoses reluctant follows assumptions necessity reconstructs nationalisation success loyality implicitly: self-given allusion risky Pandora’s box anyway ‘overstreched’ promise? Ferrara’s assumption (national) (European) concedes changed revive idea: “directly empower” short-cut Ferrara realistic far: doubt: supposed democratic) authorising subjected enlightened monarch leaders avant-garde argues) bestow subjects Goethe-Universität Frankfurt subjectivity fate hands mean: agent his/her Countering Anti-European concepts racket” conceal Absolutely conclusion? interdependence discretion odds depoliticised mode decision-making Detached addressees dealing (emerging) framing gripped “Westphalian imaginary” restricted “broader systematically discouraged coding border-crossing articulation deliberation understandable lines witness resurrection stereotypes explaining prosperous whereas Union’s counterparts refuse painfully solidly fatal misframing cleavages broken up? rightfully stresses: architecture actor Offe Entrapped UK/Malden USA 25-28 Fraser Scales Reimaging Space Globalizing UK/Malden: Polity representations ‘Export Master’ South-West comparatively productive East remarkable left-wing protest ‘anti-European’ Exit instructive Central-East defensive pro-refugee Kriesi Politicization Integration’ (S1) 32–47 59 intermediaries: parliament vice versa multilayered accommodating “Liberal de-dutification” (Joppke) group: frames envisages “diversity” “republican intergovernmentalism” decoupled diversity” disguise asymmetries conservation expected creative sight connected Thomas Piketty parliamantary assembly euro-zone combined EP parliaments (S Hennette Sacriste Vauchez Pour une Traité democratisation l’Europe Le Seuil warmly lamentation affairs plethora jeremiad rehearses courage neck readiness — losing distinctions illuminating roughly (essentially plus non-discrimination) aspects security) stylised formulation Ferrera: Koen Lenaerts president “movers” “stay-at-homes”’ fooled entrepreneurs juicy slot thriving arguably consists stay-at-homes attracted encouraged creed market-driven enables locations ignored economists: dislocation arrival Linguistic Erasmus-type block structural Retreat curtailing cause settle anywhere whichever settles jure restriction Université catholique Louvain 62 discourage “welfare tourism” pre-Brexit-vote negotiation discriminating immigrant soft-Brexiteers delighted firmly rejected negotiating blocking appetite cherry-picking massive acceptable regain stay-at-homes? inclination treaty deep diagnosed resolving unchanged treaties? amount fragments pride ceteris paribus pondering versions preference mine Caring bestowed mile” assuage richer Surely labelling “last counterproductive: locals asylum refugees think: “At them” also: “It foreigners Nothing resolute Proposals retraining “globalisation” Michael Bauer Schmitter’s Euro-stipend Euro-dividend [1] reinsurance technocrats enthuse Dullien ‘Why EMU sustainable’ ctober 2014; Schmitter ‘A(modest) 55-65; Euro-Dividend’ July Vanderborght (Mass variant life-long exploring softwares Blended cognitive critical appropriation Playing Certainly bullet Largely committee Belgians Europeanising proving (again?) tell peoples: “Don’t ridiculous deserve expecting Ferrera* expectations hopes commentators conversation prescriptive styles hindsight spelled systematic theorists perspectivism lock-ins revisit received legitimacy/stability politics: complementary? empirical-theoretical extensive scholarly highlighted needs; web fostered ‘bonding’ right-based ripe evaluations friendly effort extract unarticulated (a cosmopolitanism) direction: analysing produce) stability realist foundational ‘keep together’ (of boundaries) responsiveness asking: EU- building) Union)? (EU) context? Spatial Protection 66 appreciated bonding/loyalty “questionable idealisation” dismisses attitudes” “delusional best” takedown? espouses coat “flowery factual judgements statements far-fetched war-welfare nexus originally “coat” warfare logic” subsequently diffuse puzzling mistake” state-building constrains defining “retrograde” (fully) analysed inheres denoting justifications metric realist-political legitimises ‘bounds’ recognisable insiderhood selective formulating judgement here; operating ‘good’ interested weak ‘value-related’ à la undeniable conspicuousness shaping exemplified well-articulated embark deem lame (my interpretation) (Vandenbroucke) (Sangiovanni) ‘foundational’ dodge ideal (presumably informed) “why citizenship?” philosophical disputatio unpersuasive politician consensus? philosopher’s unfit interlocutors locate 2010s notice Euroscepticism; surmise jeopardise such; toolkit recrafting contain scientists policy-makers Yes confess: dismissive people’ Petersen O Starke Warfare Welfare: Military Development Countries elaborated philosophers spokespersons (Remember polemic Edmund Burke Bristol electors?) ‘keeping pluralism constructively both) self-contained convincing caveats consensus-building disagreement? interrogate doctrines specialise fairly manage regress infinitum detracting shifts Collective Weber’s conceives resting instrumental) mix motives Renan “daily referendum” associative revealed misunderstanding inadvertently initial cleared worry resonated comments well) ammunitions enemy “populist demonology” crystal clear: chauvinist indulgent manipulative accused buying enemy’s “with real” descriptive ‘movers’ covert intelligence appropriate fruitful fundamentals normativists empiricists modus vivendi overlapping whereby: theoretical side; causal undertake enterprise avenues younger proven self-rule pointing Rossi Sleat ‘Realism Normative Theory’ Compass 9(10) 689-701 68 responding panem circenses reaping Bismarckian elitist paternalist liberal-democrat? Probably yes scientist ‘Schumpeter’s doctrine’ juxtaposition corrects scene figure (would-be) elected leader inescapably quid pro quo whats (policy ideologies) exchanged whos (votes competing whats) minimal) spent exchanges logically presuppose acquisition package tryptic synergies; acquires self-sustaining taming controlling vertical multiplication endowments keystone Who gets (made) endogenous define/redefine dissimilar Seubert’s (democratic core) Gradually creepingly lifted cross-system democratically managed defies “far federal” standardisation Switzerland) dared trespass cantons margins residency-based ‘discrimination’ “states out-of-state universities delay hyper-federal watchdog supremacy indicator hyper-federalism delegated non-majoritarian aids banking supervision) ‘demoicratic’ Rome removed control: policy: taxing spending) illusion Continent Haven: 69 intergovernmentalism inter-nationalism mandate negotiate responsive reformed (decisions citizens) qualified (correctly view) equated ‘minority rule’ afraid ago ceased conform inter-nationalist’ blueprint praised obtains intuitively demoicratic “governing one” “one” demoi opaque (that theory) above? destructured coherence Strangely endogenously generated deliberately transferred tied: unclear prevail got careful neglect produced: safeguards peace anchor post-war fragile shattered badly consolation irresponsible rationalisations cross-national variations below) regime(s) skewed unstable instrument: “holding environment” Agreeing identifies (“all movers”; “more same”) “converting movers” total Daniele Simone Cisotta Aftermath Berlin Springer Nicolaidis ‘European Demoicracy Crisis’ 51(2) 351–369 updated Chalmers Joerges End Eurocrats’ Dream conversion persuading internalise rationales tells (no longer) buy “all aggravation “retreat” retreat posed reconfigured “Caring submitted wording (myself included) Tony Blair backstop centrifugal destabilisation tryptic; ingrained movement; 3) durability preserving pre-conditions (Bauböck’s argument) informed underline eye scepticism worried materialise swiftly rationalisation quo: ask: already? interests/views decision-makers nitty gritty echelons bureaucracies Last radar capture panes legitimising launch co-funded passport) Kuhn’s label bonus”) (maybe “children guarantee”) agenda: crafted maximise (Sangiovanni Hemerijck) sponsoring “return mobility” “drained brains” relocation complements Contentious Hospitality Giddens Hampton Agenda: Model 2006 71 piece attentions deserved contention demanding) epistemic obsessions ‘moral hazard’ ordoliberal experts (initially hazard grounds) containing details) dealt (via surveillance?) whoever resides Hemerijick’s ‘softer’ EU2020 agendas scaffolding alleged supranationalism ‘hype’ Taking apart functionally institutionally financial/monetary catastrophe? teaching disentangle decently “prosaic romantic” institutionalist temporal quasi-irreversibility (you toothpaste tube squeezed out) Hemerijck’s softer semi-internationalist (HE) fourfold dismantling supranationalist excesses Scharpf)?11 HE experts? “loyalty eyes parties? destructive off? motivated definitely environment) modicum good” Barnard Febaere De-Constitutionalization Majority Rule Vision Cologne: MPIfG 16/14 72 duties? shadows lightly terrain adopting attack summarise normativist colleagues essentials (policies compliance) ‘extractions’ exemplars package? Definitely etymology civitas constituted collectivity survival inhere Fulfilling prerogatives titularity (on observance correspondence fruition tax/contributory black economy) acute conferral underpinned immaterial reasons” habit custom affection product trajectory strategy? patchworks intertwined ‘nationality’ turned “having over-emphasised substance denizens redefine denizenship visualise (accepting exercising curtailed domestically 73 supranationally Historical reconstructions (also) Jacques Delors design ended dutification initially exceeds cosmopolitans oscillate Pro-EU demonstrated) disoriented dutitification coalesce Time loosely Weberian centrality “what democracy” (Bauböck) Do integration? belongs egalitarian cluster espoused meta-level ‘objects’ vibrant intellectual experiment undertaken (now) unfavourable constellation characterised de-freezing patterns modernity “melting solid” ambiguous (post-modernism post-nationalism post-democracy post-materialism post-capitalism ‘pros-eutopian’ (from pros us) surprised backward looking “retrotopias” Zygmunt Bauman’s metaphor) Schumpeter’s ‘classical’ ‘other’ doctrine coin ‘vertical’ correction recommending infused Equal proceduralised perimeters playing contend polytheistic them) Berufspolitik misinterpreted “Man attained reached impossible” Profession Pellegata Reconciling REScEU eu/events-news/news/can-economic-and-social-europe-be-reconciled-citizens’-view-on-integration-and-solidarity html ‘Solidarity Constellations 21(2) 222–238 Z Bauman Retrotopia empirical) outreachers actors: pros-eutopian Euro-enthusiastic Editors: Sciences Via Conservatorio 20122 Email: maurizio ferrera@unimi dei Roccettini I-50014 rainer baubock@eui