2017: a turning point in the development of the EU’s social dimension?

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Clingendael State of the Union 2018: towards better European integration Margriet Drent Martin Holderied Adriaan Schout Hussein Kassim Rem Korteweg Yuri van Loon Michiel Luining Jasper Lukkezen Fransje Molenaar Christian Schwieter Frank Vandenbroucke & Wouter Zweers Report January 2018 © Netherlands Institute International Relations ‘Clingendael’ Cover photo: debate 2017 Flickr / Parliament Unauthorized use any materials violates copyright trademark and or other laws Should a user download material from website source related to for personal non-commercial must retain all similar notices contained in original on copies this Material may be reproduced publicly displayed distributed used public purposes but only by mentioning as its Permission is required logo This can obtained contacting Communication desk (press@clingendael org) The following web link activities are prohibited present infringement issues: links that involve unauthorized our framing inline metatags well hyperlinks form disguising URL P O Box 93080 2509 AB Hague Follow us social media  @clingendaelorg   Email: info@clingendael org Website: www clingendael Disclaimer: report was commissioned Netherlands’ ministries Foreign Affairs Defence within PROGRESS framework agreement lot 3 Responsibility contents opinions expressed rests solely with authors Publication does not constitute an endorsement part Clingendael’s political violence program information gathering analysis recognition (data) bias policy-makers Contents Introduction 1 Budget Added Value narrows EU budget reform discussions State-of-Defence: stars aligned? 9 Convergence EMU resilience through convergence 13 Economic Monetary (EMU) has no design flaws 26 National Fiscal Councils Board Productivity Boards: New independent bodies without much prospect 32 Central Bank (ECB) It’s politicians’ move now ECB’s 40 Migration Irregular migration 48 Narratives From narrative managing expectations 54 Neighbourhood Russia relations Eastern 60 Public Support support Integration (and lack trust Eurobarometer) 66 Rule Law law policy: ambitions strong networks 75 Social Europe 2017: turning point development EU’s dimension? 85 Trade Can harness globalisation 2018? 91 About Senior Research Fellow Coordinator at He combines research consultancy governance questions national institutions worked projects addressing issues presidency Improving regulation amongst others assistant cluster where he focuses fiscal economic German politics University Professor Amsterdam served Minister Security Health Insurance Pensions Employment Belgian Federal Government (1999-2004) Education Flemish Regional (2004-2009) His impact employment policy Member States fellow Institute’s Conflict Unit Her conflict fragility crime particular focus human smuggling industry Sahel Libya Politics East Anglia focusses between (with UK) competition aviation Editor-in-chief Economisch Statistische Berichten (ESB) Dutch journal economics furthermore serves professor macroeconomics Utrecht broad experience advisor macroeconomic stability Head unit She specialises security defence specific Actor Common Defense Policy former institute international focused lecturer faculty global affairs Leiden formerly junior researcher dimension World works external intersection foreign trade Brexit wide range EU-related notably focussed financial currently lectures Every year special challenging when it comes highlights were number high-level strategy papers speeches such Commission White Paper Future Address President Juncker French Macron’s Initiative Tajani These pave way improving deepening months elections spring 2019 upcoming EP will different earlier current aim offer choices ensure content-based Whereas politicians makers business finding compromises volume expected think tank aims stand back daily negotiations assesses underlying trends implications initiatives possible alternatives As regards topics we had both selective pragmatic One general conclusion emerging abovementioned emphasise weaknesses challenges level whereas clearly identifies two levels which action needed: Taking eclectic look chapters sets themes identified: (1) tasks obligations member states (2) added value policies even though differ many major ways what steps should taken Starting state include important question ‘the’ (non-)emerging appears narratives significantly one another differentiation calls hand caution defending type over – given danger feeding oppositions On also offers some new perspectives thinking contributions next cannot seen isolation continued Therefore connected role them In addition concluded chapter rule strengthening capacities demands bottom-up capacity-building processes mostly 2 top-down Lessons drawn successes building internal market kinds checks balances have been created Similarly councils productivity boards underline extent deeper union depends sound Here too agenda developed shows differences swift responses hence cautionary approach confronted ring instability neighbourhood still neither instruments nor irregular continue nationally-driven caught East-West divide preferences brokering unilateral deals instead unified Differences characterise debates discussion politicisation ECB highlighting forced act because Council And start long-term (MFF) marked profound MFF emphasis ‘European Value’ argues ‘Better Spending’ starting far concerned area seems swiftly cooperation always proof pudding eating Despite pressures exploit windows opportunities Deeper successful if tune matched deliver therefore needs result Progress called haste avoided Multi-Annual Financial Framework post-2020 once more hurdle There indeed significant reason critical words Kristalina Georgieva Commissioner “the 7-year peace treaty” no-one really satisfied Call reforms abound higher than ever Yet revisions show tough high generally collide logic incrementalism previous (EAV) presented core concept guide help communicate expenditure decisions citizens EAV already old reintroduced round 2011 describe whether spending euro “means deal [it] level” underlined efficient effective synergetic compared At face reasonable defining size components However argued here ‘Added presupposing budgetary expenditures questioning necessary first place Instead principles volatile context With mounting tensions concerning whatever shape withstand scrutiny little acceptance latitude Poorly suggestions ‘more Europe’ additional Rubio E (2011) “added value” debates: four meanings Paris: Notre Ibidem 4 | damage desire among ‘take control’ make sense Evidently divisive topic mean fears restrict options It final merely compromise justifiable set individually defensible formulated Klaus-Heiner Lehne Court Auditors: “People begin they do believe looking after their money properly ”3 Given sensitive transfers affluent poorer regions substantiated A recent indicated while (Dutch) accept interventions reluctant increase government Hence quality arguments defend essence arrangements regarding revenues rebates (shared national) implementation difficult hold actors accountable simplification clear guiding explain how EU) generates same time change ‘simplification’ resources (e g forms taxation) management bound affect institutional balance changes consequences made presentation eyes regarded technocratic overrule tends narrow largely revolves around available best spent Similar investment fund (EFSI) aimed leveraging finances) wider appropriate instrument Path dependency vested interests play order truly expenses increasingly skeptical population become overall includes thorough assessment proper tools achieve Auditors (2016) Press release October 2016 Luxembourg: ECA Van Y M (2017) Burger ziet als sociale bedreiging; niet oplossing Den Haag: 5 goals so-called ‘sunset clauses’ purpose past longer meeting objectives Better Regulation methodology assessments5 Without aiming radical comprehensive reviews agreeing would step these leads insights into about: instrumentation subsidiarity proportionality costs (or Spending’) principle thus relate Treaty provisions6 takes Spending proposed provides assessing prevents becoming shortcut examine before choosing : broadening rigorous proposals underlines match nature identified problem preference lighter (such light regulation) unless considerations impacts consistency need work heavier (regulation tools) Generally involves packages (‘hybrid solutions’) Any lines viewed relation broader claims e investments imposes carefully argue effectiveness (results) (administrative burdens) (instrumentation vis-à-vis effectiveness) actions For example Italian response crisis could entail fails register (illegal) migrants undermined demand intervention requires multi-layered (2015) “Toolbox” Brussels: http://ec europa eu/smart-regulation/ guidelines/docs/br_toolbox_en pdf 6 Article TEU Protocol (no 2) spending’ functions Cold rationales redistributive allocative stabilising Considerations certain concern inherently analysed Redistributive parts Agricultural (CAP) Cohesion funds resemble permanent hard direct CAP payments regional competitiveness (part funds) normative (fiscal-federalist) positive (political economy) justifications 7 Secondly EU-wide seldom temporary; often ‘entitlements’ achieving Poland Hungary received worth 98 respectively 57 per cent GNI 8 allocations heart benefits generating doubtful Increased macro-economic conditionality linked Country-Specific Recommendations Semester floated solution structural itself small function credible stick carrot Most subject regular including reviewed terminated allocated instance flow richer Such avoid ineffective encourage stakeholders generate effects rather being considered entitlements Allocations goods (EPGs) i able create synergies 10 non-excludable Ecorys CPB IFO (2008) Study Rotterdam: revenue 2014-2020 Retrieved eu/ budget/figures/interactive/index_en cfm – staff working paper EC Definition non-rivalrous theory applicable Nevertheless provision occurs subnational domestic allocation EPGs competencies fulfill conditions good Examples areas EPG argument convincing environmental protection mobility (through infrastructure education 11 debatable poorly equipped provide effectively why fail results themselves If unable unwilling spend efficiently covering problems lasting solutions complementary larger package Stabilisation objective (agricultural) case accounts suffer downturn Calls increased flexibility seek budget’s making easier reallocate circumventing initial Flexibility sought satellite outside increasing ‘clout’ tracks complicate discourse reduce accountability To illustrate launch Fund Strategic Investments premature ‘budgetary creep’ harm (EFSO) pass test address deficits Conclusion again explored Multi-annual advantage specifies gains limits allows claim protect ‘efficiency’ ‘public goods’ deceptively care causes genuine Moreover cover Collignon S ‘The Governance Goods’ in: D Tarschys Budget: What Go In? Out? (pp 42-57) Stockholm: SIEPS assess combination Like warrant reconsiderations Going further broaden putting (complementary) option Expenditures considering disappointing outcomes alter due tendency juste retour eliminate discussions: simply recalculate net returns disagree calculations forces fundamental matching Its take fully root “peace treaty negotiations” keeping modest incentive After decade relative standstill recently shifted gear Geopolitical shifts deteriorating environment United pressing own window opportunity get serious about Particularly Jean-Claude issue his priority since entered Berlaymont example: “Europe toughen up Nowhere truer afford piggy-back military might let France alone honour Mali ”1 followed concrete statement address: “By 2025 fully-fledged ”2 promise ‘l’Europe qui protège’ turned central planks legitimacy adding physical cultural connotations Although (CSDP) meetings December 2013 2015 propelled top Implementation Plan Commission’s Action Global Strategy June election generated kept later Germany pro-EU courses plans gain momentum During Sorbonne speech Macron spoke historic progress foundation community” laid out Defence” establish common force doctrine remarkable 75% respondents Towards protects empowers defends Brussels http://europa eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-16-3043_en htm September eu/rapid/ press-release_SPEECH-17-3165_en Emmanuel Speech Paris supports percentage stable 2004 (varying 71% 78% during whole period) Amidst documents remains amounts ‘state defence’ developments EU? notoriously distinguish rhetoric Ever Franco-British Summit St Malo almost decades ago periods optimism ‘strategically autonomous’ seemed corner alternated sometimes coincided) years stagnation contribute smallest CSDP missions Even seem align meaningful mature reversible main turnarounds decision structured (Pesco) end debut active player promoting financing collaborative capability Both slowed down until now: (political) commitment right capabilities bulwark sovereignty so ringfenced firmly intergovernmental zone By awakening clause 42 groups formed Signing Pesco means voluntarism Failing comply entails suspended unprecedented field defence: enforceable legal keep back-tracking commitments While decisive breakthrough avant garde long term develop actual fall short Suspension participant revolutionary last resort sanction there possibilities enforcement non-compliance remote That ‘business-as-usual’ crown jewels German-French Special Eurobarometer 461 ‘Designing Europe’s Future: April p 12 at: eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index cfm/ResultDoc/download/ DocumentKy/78778 Arnaud Danjean ‘Défense européenne Attention à céder l’euphorie’ Bruxelles Dick Zandee defence? July https://www org/sites/default/files/2017-07/2017_A_turning_point_for_European_defence_DZ kick-started tandem instrumental widely disparage views Berlin rid potential remain ‘inclusive’ insistence divided ‘inclusive ambitious’ like contradictio terminis rendering less mechanism operationally creative officials contemplate add extra speed ambitious thereby de facto creating group enduring shortfalls addressed (EDAP) November announced future offered incentives programmes launched (EDF) elaboration EDAP EDF wants stimulate offering funding retaining key technologies industrial underpin ambition autonomous actor Altogether proposes invest €1 billion annually sector previously excluded game changer terms providing collaboration meant finance operations EU-owned closing procurement stranded otherwise involvement just states’ going Agreeing (2021-2027) UK’s contribution tight affair room Joint Ministers Jean-Marc Ayrault Frank-Walter Steinmeier ‘A world uncertainties’ 27 See also: Position Ursula von der Leyen Jean Yves le Drian Revitalizing realistic senato it/japp/bgt/showdoc/17/DOSSIER/990802/3_propositions-francoallemandes- sur-la-defense kid block Brief 2016; March line battle wills those countries substantial defence-industrial (i Italy Sweden Spain Britain) turn sour intended impetus denying Since led Military Planning Conduct Capability (MPCC) Coordinated Annual Review (CARD) beefing Athena MPCC CARD considerable accomplishments leaves desired operational headquarters based covers Furthermore forgotten most status promises Invoking Art changers pending Apart direction capable unanswered: carved three carry autonomously: stabilisation crises; b capacity partners; c So defined very precisely crucial autonomy NATO relationship open interpretation Chancellor Angela Merkel’s remarks “Europeans fate hands (…) friendship US Great Britain”10 heat campaign exemplary uncertainty crept transatlantic Recent saw acceleration undoubtedly left devices aligning unclear familiar gravitational pull short-term divergence strategic cultures hinder HR CFSP/CSDP 14 https://eeas eu/sites/eeas/files/eugs_implementation_plan_st14392 en16_0 http://www zeit de/video/2017-05/5451383425001/angela-merkel-europa-muss-sein-schicksal-in-dieeigene- hand-nehmen 28 May Euro upon symbol unity Already inception economists ability newfound absorb shocks resilient crises Thinking dominated Optimum Currency Area (OCA) prerequisites (fiscal) risk sharing capital labour cycle synchronization prominent arguing integrate break apart anything differentiated Euro) 345 consensus Eurozone see Several papers6 sufficiently Large (institutional) account Bayoumi T Eichengreen B (1992) Shocking aspects monetary unification Berkeley Working pp 92-187 De Grauwe (2006) ‘What learnt Maastricht Treaty?’ Journal Market Studies 44(4) 711-730 Sandbu Orphan: Debt Princeton: Princeton Scharpf F W Forced Structural Or Differentiated Community Cologne: Max Planck Societies Stiglitz J Euro: How Threatens York: Norton Company Adviesraad voor Internationale Vraagstukken Is Stormbestendig? Over verdieping en versterking AIV accommodating contributed recovery economies 6th Initiatives (EMF) introduction economy minister idea meantime despite drive Southern abated health disquieting identifying mechanisms induce solve (again) lead leap forward Current benefit stronger diagnosis multi-level toolbox doing pay attention indicators structures functioning markets according OCA well-functioning Analysis: buzzing types interrelated entangled (the of) literature review real nominal cyclical limited income (real convergence) cornerstone resilience? Indicators Clingendael: Completing Union- EPSC Two Visions Direction Lisbon Plus Monitor: Into Higher Gear lisboncouncil net/publication/publication/145-the-2017-euro-plus-monitor-into-a-higher-gear- html Auf dem Brinke Anna Henrik Enderlein Joachim Fritz-Vannahme kind need? Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung und Jacques Delors Institut 15 (nominal (in criteria) (income highly criticized search alternative under fourth category gaining ground say categories desirable neglect tend output sense) (effective) implies Resilient prevent imbalances essential shock absorbers distinguishes finances representing environments An aspect flows examines (national) five Competitiveness Index (GCI): institutions; environment; development; efficiency; efficiency GCI measures 137 along twelve domains 150 conducting surveys experts data selection databases IMF OECD degree selected give glance several Quality (figure 1) administrative individuals firms governments interact determinant Political Centre Reinventing Convergence: Structures High-level Conference https://ec eu/epsc/events/reinventing-convergencetoward- resilient-economic-structures_en 16 country subcategories property rights ethics corruption organization judicial independence public-sector performance regulatory burden Private corporate culture consideration put scores context: 2017-2018 Finland highest ranked worldwide Also (7th) lesser (21st) Belgium (25th) (31st) score relatively Portugal (43rd) (54th) Greece (89th) (95th) lowest All forefront particularly low Macroeconomic looks savings inflation debts interest rates credit ratings) (underlying individual 12th worldwide; (14th) (33rd) (59th) (63rd) average mainly (90th) (96th) (105th) (117th) Internal 3) indicates availability transparency banking Sub-indicators (easy access venture availability) trustworthiness rights/bankruptcy laws) performing ranks 4th (12th) (26th) (28th) although none recovered pre-crisis Spain’s (68th) situation dire (116th) (126th) (133rd) perform showing severe reduction Goods 4) companies innovative customer oriented discipline Components Forum 2017–2018 http://reports weforum org/global-competitiveness-index-2017-2018/ 17 existence barriers) anti-monopoly buyer sophistication 5th (11th) (16th) (17th) (34th) (36th) comparison (49th) (60th) (93rd) slightly above below Overall sophistication) southern incumbent entry differs contrary underpinning Labour Labor 5) workers (hiring firing practices wage etc ) talent salaries reflect country’s attract 13th globally (23rd) (44th) (55th) (56th) (70th) (110th) lower exception ‘efficient talent’; however countries’ comparatively 18 Figure 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017 Average Source: Adapted author = 19 20 21 22 Divergence subgroups Figures high-performers low-performers Striking graphs Group (Germanic/Scandinavian) (Napoleonic) (Southern14) Literature varieties capitalism tradition (economic) persisting Sotiropoulos (2009) Bureaucracies Comparative Perspective West 27(3) 405 422 23 fact especially regard confirm ‘stickiness’ difficulty implement Table standard deviation indicating noticeable Standard Red green Institutions 2007 2008 0 7788953 5463647 5809693 4530902 4181672 2009 8088458 5373515 5683274 4494555 3918233 2010 8593052 5628758 498324 422011 4159464 8447559 6144045 5237073 463524 4594172 2012 8652202 7327914 6190201 4329612 4987448 9184198 9900335 7696766 4686725 5361705 2014 9163334 9043496 854405 4744394 4936456 918611 8840618 8249526 422442 4733083 9021409 949724 8230353 4002132 4663917 8919059 9794686 9599005 417297 4735015 9149495 8714584 009167 4586246 5017041 Difference EU-9 + 1360542 3250937 4281977 0055344 0835369 EU-28 0009167 2758253 0845747 067101 0369428 Computed members having diverged gap North South widened But in-depth North-South portrayed Within taking Regarding op cit 24 performances diverging each marginally converge similarities (although improving) Other pillars well‑functioning namely basic deteriorated fragmented underdeveloped note noteworthy mention smaller period variety factors (including method) attributed (incl Baltics) shown cause suggest inducing Rather (domestic) exploring discuss improved divergent path Imbalances Procedure Claims exacerbates either discussed reforms? overcome table appear continuing insufficiently analyze problems: weak inefficient labor 25 establishment Fund’ besides it’s politically attainable responsibility fundamentally openness Further enhancement Reform Service tackle institutional) conclude interesting venues exploration basis competitive Three deserve potentially aid states? alleviate shocks? incentivize process States? levers reform? budget? ownership initiatives? coordinating enhance standards play? eu/info/publications/economy-finance/completing-europes-economicand- monetary-union-policy-package_en Critique Reflection Deepening EMU1 Introduction: shared vision Paper2 steer Additionally list things targeted Union-speech emphasised ´window opportunity´ Advisory view yet complete growth sluggish unemployment threatens entire everyone page thirdly leeway decisively: “It prevail dogmas build bridges relinquish mistrust” (COM 291 31) assumptions recommendations article brief critique builds ‘De heeft geen weeffouten’ Beleid Maatschappij No 42017 COM Republic La outlines suggests strengthen mentioned Diagnosis disagreements makes far-reaching appointment Economics Finance who (EP); plus taxes tax harmonisation; (EMF); union; Eurobonds; liquidation failed banks introduce joint liability risk-sharing) represent away existing rules criteria implied budgets limit debt 60% GDP expect bailouts Moving no-bailout movement system becomes parliament approve amend thing done roots facing stresses risks posed advocates Outside adhered ultimately feet factor doubts significance great ‘external’ caused insufficient supervision delayed missed accumulation unsustainable ‘shock’ quickly existential threat counteract respects Articles 119-126 (Nr 12) procedure event excessive Abridged version Functioning (2016/C 202/01) Stability Growth Pact leniency temporarily various states) ought primary cushioning stands want arrive perceptions Disagreements Aside least overhang figures advocating completion expansion deposit guarantee scheme ‘backstop’ failing aggregate ‘safe assets’ securities together spreading Economically somewhat comparable subprime mortgage junk bonds Those wish return usually write-offs discussable begs guarantees reform-minded creation unanswered burdens? ‘bad banks’ necessary? probably backup plan trouble rate hike Would then ‘too late’ leave worse off? actually ‘programme country’? exchange renewed 29 hoped-for envisaged commencement project 1992 arrived states6 indicate combatting middle figure rankings induced Alternatives union: regain public’s confidence ‘safe-assets’) distorting rekindle (policy) harmonised USA Canada threaten road endless harmonisation Strengthening market-driven answer parties assume hope reap relating When currencies reasonably secure ‘Real Area: Evidence Theory Implications’ Bulletin 5/2015 (July 2015) threat: rules’ Pirozzi N (ed EU60: Re-founding Europe; propose Rome: IAI (https://www org/ publication/eus-existential-threat) indicators: (forthcoming) Breton (1998) Competitive Cambridge: Cambridge lender resort’ Voxeu August 30 single ahead sustainable running (especially Italy) premium resistance pricing (particularly South) held books assigned weighting immediately deployed greater Irish raised deposits guaranteed 100 000 euros follow suit stop moving Ireland represents subsidised private awareness lowering odds Europeanisation models paid efforts Majone: “Unfortunately […] centralized harmonization practised inter-jurisdictional ”10 emphasises plays encouraging motion painful (relatively small) slim produce 4% (cf Hungary) facilitate chance success sectors Aviation safety food examples Majone G (2012) would-be power 31 agencies supervisory off (see volume) keeps Eurostat organisation Juncker’s brought book repeated overruns “because France”12 run “very Commission”13 Highly democracies decentralising check preparation unavoidably incompatible trying reformed traditions Scandinavian inspection serve reference H ‘Revisiting deficit’ Ongaro Multi-Level Governance: Missing Linkages Bingley: Emerald 2015; ‘Framework agency’ Volume 31(3) (2011): 363–384 http://uk reuters com/article/uk-eu-deficit-france/eu-gives-budget-leeway-to-france-because-it-isfrance- juncker-idUKKCN0YM1N0 Juncker: ‘Good intentions wrong profile’ Spectator internationalespectator nl/article/eu-commission-president-juncker-goodintentions- wrong-profile) home message converged shock-proof stickiness (weak) evident improve (new) EU-level are: Independent (IFIs) monitor States; Boards (NPBs) microeconomic competitiveness; (EFB) throughout additions (hereinafter SGP) relying monitoring Larch Braendle ‘Independent Councils: Neglected Siblings Banks? Perspective’ DOI: 1111/jcms 12577; Horvath ´EU Institutions: Assessment Potential Effectiveness’ 12631; Claeys Darvas Z Leandro proposal revive framework’ Contribution (March) Bruegel 33 sharper understanding local priorities reliable voice long-standing reliance proponents importance highlighted coalition Rutte interviews conducted agency-type varies considerably cases functional remained inadequate EU-agencies dependent (increasingly political) state-of-play reports IFIs publication annual EFB deadline NPBs goes beyond mere stocktaking promising innovations stakeholder February firstly rational evolution findings summarised second section concludes shortcomings set-up Vertrouwen toekomst Regeerakkoord 2021 VVD CDA D66 ChristenUnie 50 ‘Drifting EU’ Levi-Faur ‘Regulatory Networks Regulatory Agencification: Single Space’ Vol (6): 810–29 Jankovics L Sherwood States: Early Years’ Discussion 067 (July) Commission; Angerer Copeland Japunčić bodies: play’ (November) Available eu/info/sites/info/files/2017_ efb_annual_report_en_0 34 rationale drift flexible decision-making reinforcement SGP Six-Pack Two-pack “enhanced ownership” recommended created10 objectives: reforms; allow (IFIs NPBs) EFB) Together integrated uphold no-bail successive vocal supporters macro- reiterated reinforce prominently headed Daniel Gros Cinzia Alcidi highlight Country Specific (CSRs) ‘operationally independent’ They CSRs continuously decreasing External peer pressure yield sufficient tangible plans: ‘Commission Roadmap Union’ Directive 2011/85/EU Recital 1; guidelines emerged legally binding (specifically 2011/85/EU) Pack 473/2013) Compact (The Coordination Union) formally (2015/1937; Oct 2015); Five-Presidents (June decided via Recommendation (20 2016) C ‘In-Depth analysis: Semester?’ reminiscent Kok et al (2004) ‘Facing challenge: employment’ High-Level ‘home ownership’ found limiting holds true 35 ‘non-crisis’ times Charles Wyplosz expert complex centralised come within” “independent endowed authorities States” initiative “strengthening abuse (pro-cyclical) IFIs’ threefold: a) endorsing forecast produced authorities; b) compliance numerical rules; c) assessments activation correction interconnected EU-level: Commission-run biannual EUNIFI established DG ECFIN self-organised Network EUIFIs referred “platforms” suggesting reluctance engage formal network latter platform produces position minimum counts supposed equivalent monitors ‘comply‑or-explain’ apply 13; Centralization Decentralization Issue’ 014 (September) (1b) 16) 473/2013 aware PBOs EU-specific IFI IFI-type body joined study 36 Initially board coordinate abiding counterparts; evaluate advise substantially differed did ‘coordinating’ wary stance (as hints subordination control stance) evaluating states; giving advice prospective well); (3) ad-hoc (4) cooperate task visible closely disconnected structure initially described “structurally independent” grounded legislature “capacity timely manner”21 “national authorities” comparative perspective across trading partners sensitivities objected comparisons watered dropping -C Tusk Dijsselbloem Schulz ‘Annex 3’ mirroring dropped officially advisory Board” (which close affiliation Commission) Chair directly chosen consulting Eurogroup EFB’s Secretariat Secretariat-General amendment gave discretion choice establishing shall appointed consultation Board’s (21 7-8 37 ‘adequate resources’ recommendation directive regulations obligatory non-binding Findings hurdles distinguished inhibit impediments practical constraints ambiguities equally disruptive Practical Lack political-administrative varying methods attracted idiosyncrasies nationally pertinent NPBs: suffers (board days year)25 under-resourced parent departments supporting Task fairly straightforward duplication emerges IFIs: supervise Compare (20th ; dedicate full Members respective responsibilities ” ‘Call expressions Board’ 38 clash discusses input continues relevance setting subsidiarity-based ignored explained NPB official analyses ranging removed adopting unlikely possess array speaking reserved deficiencies involved Little thought designing mutual inspections (also foster learning professional values) stage trend rejected interlocutor calling “regular Committee”28 node emerge latter’s enjoys seniority ‘ex ante benchmark’ responded ultimate Draft Budgetary broadly compliant provisions Mijs Unsustainability Institutions’ (April) 39 purposely coordination safeguard effort perceived interfering setup (but reservations role) Lastly MEPs side-lined ordinary legislative creates paradox translated operate shift suggested “a auspices Commission” decentralised surveillance” sensible subsequently arrangement normal pattern legislation: state’s supported controls systems EU-networks model) non-committal alterations positions embedded rescuing currency Time prevented collapsing fuelled bubbles wealth redistribution mandate bank intervened multiple occasions generously provided loans commercial reconfirmed declaring prove bought sort desperately needed lacked enact resolution difficulties nobody overview systematically authority intervene default percent total eurozone dissolution Mario Draghi Investment London 41 Neither incomplete charge solved executive Responsibilities negotiated demarcated organised find reality institution intervening it: “I unbiased observers irreversible motivated stabilise prices Bank’s Inadequate utilisation respite use: Mechanism save ECB; lacking completed insurance acts Due insufficiency debt-deflationary spiral became likely early Had private-sector households felt compelled service downward accordingly Ibid Jacobs Kool ‘Macro-economics sheet liquidity trap’ Background document Side quantitative easing stepped more: generous Once cost: latest accompanied improvement Quantitative (QE) side foundations abundant forcing investors estate shares rising record highs is: rely fundamentals bubble created? certainty retrospect What’s dangerous artificially pension fertile 50Plus pensioners party Netherlands; ensures Syriza Front audiences; growing inequalities rise asset ammunition populists sides spectrum Consequences altered illustrates 2003 onwards gross risen amount equal points Eurozone’s illustration looked sold 43 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2005 Gross (shown axis) Note: averages risky First practice decide shining letter Trichet sent Berlusconi’s departure ‘neutral’ deploys traditionally bankers electoral QE subsequent Which (corporate country) buy this? Letter (http://www voltairenet org/article171574 html) 44 respect lies credibility restraining medium spectre haunts ordoliberal-oriented Doing nothing now? obvious options: nothing; accelerated balances; Let’s Currently recovering strongly biding one’s succeeds unwinding sheets orderly fashion repay contract 2046 grown reach pre‑crisis Well recession Recessions occur every eight recessions fifteen twenty occurred ‘double dip’ financed indirectly lowered stimulated unavailable tool zero reduced Blinder Ehrmann Haan -J Jansen ‘Necessity mother invention: crisis’ 32(92) 707–755 Own calculation details interested Drehmann Borio K Tsatsaronis Characterising cycle: don’t lose sight term! BIS 380; Koopman R Lit Lucas ‘Model-based decomposition U ’ Tinbergen 16-051/IV 45 neutral depressed booming) declining Additional feed flames sale Will large assets Difficult rapid economically advisable I doubt proceed enough helps Last Reserve (Fed) started programme According half years’ contrast halted unlike delay influenced effect ending Schoot Groot ‘Low upside’ Rabobank (can economie rabobank com ); Cecchetti Schoenholtz ‘How Low Go?’ moneyandbanking com/ commentary/2016/2/28/how-low-can-they-go); Hofmann ‘Is persistently low?’ 628 Fed ‘Decisions implementation’ dated federalreserve gov) ‘Monetary Decisions’ ecb eu) 46 derail aforementioned reductions ‘just that’ leading adverse blowing Projected % US’s GDP) 5% 15% 25% aug-07 aug-09 aug-11 aug-13 aug-15 aug-17 aug-19 aug-21 aug-23 Historical FRB (Federal Louis (details available) succeed downside mix originates defuse accomplish disposal risk-sharing remission forgiving) household Union’s Opting late organize pledge 47 incomes implemented issuing consequence bear pursued electorate harder vote elected ensuing cast obsolete job Depolitisation price pursuing implicit majority climate opposition Were happen dealt blow unwise Third Cabinet Coalition Agreement stipulates relationships wouldn’t reimagined welfare maximization exceptional exist saying easy forcefully continent solidarity fleeing persecution refuge hollow contemporary characterised intra-European disunity against threats oftentimes detriment (EU) challenged norms values exerted extreme disgruntled electorates manufacturing ever-higher barriers attempt arriving shores tacitly reinterpreting duties Fragmentation refugee surge fragmentation surfaced centred Asylum System (CEAS) Part dispute resulted Dublin eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-17-3165_en ‘temporary movements’ [short-term migration] ‘long-term migration’ ‘forced [refugees] Guilmoto Sandron développement Documentation Française African consist trafficking victims pushed massive abuses refugees Horn Africa dan granted (temporal) 604/2013 49 enter responsible processing asylum applications balked unfair perceive quietly permitting travel passing procedures height strain responding invitation (Syrian) northbound discord favourable migrants’ presence numbers territories Austro-Balkan advocated partially reinstatement borders Countries bridge transit welcoming combined externalisation EU-Turkey appeared measure divisions CEAS Emergency Relocation Scheme committed relocate 160 Slovakia voted adoption extended relocation Justice annul lacklustre willingness flat-out refusal resettlement stated Only 144 eligible planned target relocated egmontinstitute be/content/uploads/2017/03/EPB-A-Dublin-IV-recast-A-new-and-improvedsystem- pdf?type=pdf ecfr eu/publications/summary/bear_any_burden_how_eu_governments_can_manage_the_ refugee_crisis Czech Romania extension dismissed Judgment Joined Cases C-643/15 C-647/15 v eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/what-we-do/policies/european-agendamigration/ 20170927_factsheet_relocation_sharing_responsibility_en proved reticent them8 pledges tabled seeks remedy Regulation’s “reinforces competence” “sudden inflows with” hijacked overhaul regulated foundational responsibility-sharing ignore “volumes jurisprudence academic commentary exposed multifaceted responsibilityallocation mechanism” perpetuate inefficiency intra-EU discontent opendemocracy net/can-europe-make-it/solon-ardittis/live-and-let-die-end-of-eu-migrantrelocation- eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-1620_en Entry oppose solidify processed applicants undertaken secondary examining applicant applicant) bloc opposes corrective robert-schuman eu/en/european-issues/0434- dublin-and-schengen-restoring-confidence-and-strengthening-solidarity-between-member-states-of ecre org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/ECRE-Comments-Dublin-IV 51 Pragmatism work: border externalization re‑interpretation likelihood failure system’s persistence (perceptions unregulated fear telling Interior Marco Minniti noted duty “to afraid reassure liberate fear” people scared immigration terrorism ”14 jumped bandwagon image uncontrolled perpetuated quite bringing entering origin: Indeed unilaterally re-instated manage southwards government’s accelerate bilateral readmission agreements actively outsources signature memorandum leader Libya’s UN-recognized Fayez al- Serraj scaled Libyan coastguard Behind scenes tribes South-Libya communities coast bring halt basically paying smugglers Merkel praised taming nytimes com/2017/08/04/world/europe/italy-marco-minniti-migration Sudan signed theguardian com/world/2017/sep/07/italian-minister-migrants-libya-marco-minniti org/pub/2017/turning_the_tide/ prolongation and/or outbreak region insensitive dynamics org/sustainable_migration_management_Agadez/ osw waw pl/en/ publikacje/analyses/2017-09-06/germany-favour-further-limiting-migration-north-africa 52 synonym reducing migrant cost scenery president himself expand externalising Spanish prime ministers presidents Chad Niger High Representative resettle Not third silent assumption behind broker biggest stumbling standing fundament leaders renegotiate reinterpretation concepts redefinition Turkey safe similarly puts country’ focal investigate update 1951 Refugee Convention futureoriented policies” length pl/en/publikacje/analyses/2017-09-06/germany-favour-further-limiting-migrationnorth- africa origin willing negotiate Initiative’s necessarily origin’ esiweb org/pdf/ESI%20-%20Turkey%20as%20a%20safe%20third%20country%20 -%2017%20October%202015 Procedures (Directive 2013/32EU 2013) parameters http://eur-lex eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013L0032&from=en kabinetsformatie2017 nl/binaries/kabinetsformatie/documenten/publicaties/2017/10/10/ regeerakkoord-vertrouwen-in-de-toekomst/Regeerakkoord+2017-2021 53 Human Rights’ (ECHR) simultaneously branch’s manoeuvre safeguards exists foreseeable first-entry silver lining pathways frame ‘irregular stopped’ dominant right-wing anti-establishment Austria driven divisor unifier meaning “continent refuge” utopian dream took ECHR violated intercepted adrift Mediterranean returned https://hudoc echr coe int/eng-press#{“display”:[“1”] ”dmdocnumber”:[“901572”]} Greek amended modify composition Appeals Committees seekers heard appeals negative rebutted presumption asylumineurope org/news/02-03-2017/greece-appeal-rules-amended-after-rebuttal-turkeys-safety adopted amendments pertaining (8 2017) detained recourse judiciary helsinki hu/wp-content/ uploads/Bill_No-13976_20-February-2017 discussing Narrating story-telling myth-making constructions nation fabric ‘communicating’ appealing emotions Politicians immense task: feel involved? packed eurocrisis inevitability inroads ‘Union’ identity Governments spill-over hardly anyone Opinion ‘paragon virtues’ ‘irresistibly attractive’ ‘beacon light’ Who well? uncertain plea ‘wind sails’ imply suitable stay Risse Th (2005) ‘Neofunctionalism puzzles integration’ 12:2 2005: 291–309 (eds) multilevel forthcoming 55 ‘The’ raises questions: Do (still) story integration? formulate corresponds variegated narratives? Are converging countries? Kingdom narrative? Barroso tried reinvent diversity values’ concerns Asia Negative stories bond grave defender stressed “confidence regained dignity democracy reaffirmed Populist nationalist prevail” stress ‘diversity’4 coexist easily applied court breaking 3% ‘because France’ avoiding visions ‘delivers’ senior 2015: “no philosophies please; Discussions ‘the deliver’ references reform’ (compare Narrative Opening Warsaw General Assembly Lacroix Nicolaidis Stories Intellectual Debates Contexts Oxford: OUP 56 speech)6 pragmatism frustration resonates impressions ‘blaming Brussels’7 outcome referendum UK adapted changing Iron Curtain) Cameron derived beneficial Rationally membership Setting aside Cameron’s ‘Remain’ tempered history ambivalence subscribed myth British exceptionalism free isles stretching thousand Echoing Churchill narrator English-speaking peoples placed centre circles influence; Commonwealth order) Curtain weakened concentric circle (Europe) strategically Enlargement Thatcher integrity ‘Europe’ Consecutive elysee fr/declarations/article/initiative-pour-l-europe-discours-d-emmanuel-macron-pourune- europe-souveraine-unie-democratique/ ‘Rutte Europese januskop’ 71/2 https:// spectator org/pub/2017/2/rutte_en_de_europese_januskop/ Quite France´s traditional self-image Gaulle formalised French-German Élysée (1963) symbolise intense societal deepen Treaty; symbolic signal transmit France’s greatness prestige depend (Europe multiplicateur puissance) included element controlling (West-) Peace figured (L’Europe protège) pro-internationalisation -liberalisation ambiguous: (wage) resulting intra- services mixed strengths influence Deutsche Mark emotional nationalistic Hollande’s ‘a sovereignty’ relates favourite Presidents L’Europe puissance L’Europe protège doit resemblance striking pro-euro) Tsipras Renzi go rescuers Rozenberg ´French oft EU; ends indifference’ 58 integrationist modifications air War II rehabilitation emits impression middle-sized het Schäuble live tale rule-based (stability compromise-oriented (giving Deutschmark accepting newly adhere reasons tense Bundesländer open-ended accepted transfer patience distrust Schӓuble’s flirtations euro-exits outspoken Contrary sober (2013) “[integration] beginning” “European partnership countries” dislike (“people doctor”) Rutte’s clear: confederation modified maximize neighbouring changed pro-integrationist happens others; rescue https://spectator org/nl/publicatie/hoe-premier-rutte-europa-even-veroverde Presidency: Continuing Relevance Rotating Presidency 54-63 59 ‘no Greece’ defended ‘we it’ collective Conclusions implications: overtaxed course helpful stuck relations’ Germany’s self-awareness pronounced emphasize reforming few faced split societies remarkably careful opts chooses fuite difference Northern sphere developing proving elusive struggling expectation Lowering frustrating ‘EU delivers’ Bratislava frustrations underperforms carries dangers Thirdly assert circumstances polarisation keywords series (ENP) ‘respond evolving neighbourhood’ geopolitical continuous struggle fight promote vicinity recognises thwarts neighbours ENP’s cybersecurity proven Politically unitary Russian assertiveness constantly constructive engagement dialogue) deterrence sanctions) Meanwhile pursue faces coping Donbass extending sanctions regime disposition Release eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1334_ 61 war Minsk fifth casualties thwart Ukraine protracted stall Ukraine’s Ukraine-EU Association Moscow tests restoring considers OSCE roles Normandy format absence preoccupied moreover Catalonian push fragile believed divide-and-conquer possibly Russia’s non-resolution Peacekeeping Mission unexpectedly Putin poisoned chalice contributing ‘freezing’ legitimizing internationally settling Through ball neglected Ukrainian constitution Russia´s Ukraine´s contradictory sequencing Provisions Kostanyan Meister ‘Ukraine Breaking deadlock process’ CEPS Document 423 Sasse ‘High End Ukraine’ Carnegie http://carnegieeurope eu/strategiceurope/74897 Liik Want’ ECFR Commentary eu/article/ commentary_what_does_russia_want_7297 Bildt Donbas possible?’ article/commentary_is_peace_in_donbas_possible 62 stalemate ´Steinmeier formula´ succeeded peacekeeping mission require ensuring ceasefire withdrawal carrying separatist semicriminal nationalists primarily rent-seeking rosy Kremlin imposed acknowledge settlement agree dimensions conditioned lifting six stem unacceptability breach territorial determined (counter)sanctions interdependence geopolitical/security geographic proximity historical experiences energy supplies (historic current) ties understandings Baltic strict Put ‘Steinmeier-formula’ entailed organising Luhansk Donetsk Upon confirmation legality entities Boulègue agreements’ Stratégie 11/2016 frstrategie org/publications/notes/the-political-and-military-implications-of-the-minsk-2- agreements-11-2016 21-12-2017 consilium eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/12/21/ russia-eu-prolongs-economic-sanctions-by-six-months/ Sjursen Rosén ‘Arguing Sanctions Response Crisis JCMS 55(1) 63 Denmark hardliners More moderate MH/17 downing tougher poses splits Bulgaria Slovenia internally Cyprus geographically distant comprising Malta Luxembourg Estonia Latvia Lithuania Divided Opponents Little-concerned Hardliners Moderate surface signs dissolution? Some rightwing harming countermeasures fragment thereof exports redirected unsuccessful curb Shagina Friend Foe? Mapping Leadership europeanleadershipnetwork commentary/friend-or-foe-mapping-the-positions-of-eu-member-states-on-russia-sanctions/ CNBC says Hungary’s cnbc com/2017/ 10/04/russian-sanctions-dont-work-says-hungary Di Salvo Counter-Sanctions EU: 64 escalating lifted breakdown leverage damaged harmed maintain run-up UN installment diffusion state-building low-point EU-Russia entrenched treaties consolidation elimination endemic classic foreignpolicy underestimation inclined Norm fields ENP-country governing elites harsh realities Moldova pro-European name ENP acknowledges closer upholding harms handling undemocratic Fischer ’A Permanent Sanctions?’ SWP Comments swp-berlin org/en/publication/eu-russia-a-permanent-state-of-sanctions/ deterrent? Graduate Geneva http://graduateinstitute ch/lang/en/pid/11764/_/events/psig/the-new-deterrent-international; Montesano Togt Moldova: Right Track?’ Neighbourhood’ Toward Eurasia 65 call honest justified ´the country´ Fact matter perceives employ withholding Armenia signing (AA) policywise fits description little´ animation complexity impossible Rewarding partial elites’ Pursuing discursive side-effect spurring suspicion Federation seeking placing tailor-made approaches asking neighbourhood-wide compatible aspirations eu/globalstrategy/sites/globalstrategy/files/regions/files/eugs_ review_web_0 Blockmans Obsolescence Rowman Littlefield Linking emphasized Union1 ‘deliver’ institution-based track2 contended thanks EU-centered qualification EU-trust solvers for: ‘people losing implicate Understandably jobs unpack Trust moved technical fall-out challenge upswings ‘State 2016: defends’ ‘Speech Süddeutsche Zeitung Day 2015’ 67 referenda dissatisfaction repetitive bordering superficiality strengthened distinguishing layers bigger acknowledged bullet Each layer fix citizen’s support: Long-term diminished Europeans tended normalisation4 EU-euphoria enlargement decidedly worrying attachments develop5 upswing reveals Post-Brexit Favorable Pew pewglobal org/2017/06/15/post-brexit-europeansmore-favorable-toward-eu/ Rood state: partner last? Portland: Eleven Publishing Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau COB Burgerperspectieven 2011/4 Haag van; Luining; valkuilen een sociaal Europa zijn groot’ 68 2006 69 35% 45% 50% 55% EU-average 70 65% POR SVK BUL ITA CZE LTH ROM IRE FRA GER BEL SLO HUN GRE SPA MAL CYP LUX DEN FIN NL AUT SWE EST CRO POL LAT 2004-2016 governments: (much) imploded low- high-trust (Germany Netherlands) fell performance) hopes prefer hypothesis explore drop differently consists render misplaced activism earn 71 unfortunate ask hinders misleading dip upward (See EU-membership 1990-2016 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 mend7 (close average) 80 (more) Batsaikhan; Spring recovering’ 72 Trump turmoil Draghi’s handled credibly qualified Questions asked competences ‘Brussels’ Thus questionnaire fee powers transferring Eurobonds seriously compromised questionnaires ‘Trust’ generic disregarding statements Mateo “this Europe” Papandreou mutualisation stark lagging groot oplossing’ nl/sites/ default/files/ PB_Valkuilen_voor_sociaal_Europa Höpner; Jurczyk Blurs Line Propaganda’ Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung 15/6 Köln Program ‘Europa: un nuovo inizio: Programma della Presidenza Italiana del Consiglio dell’Unione Europea’ Rome 73 supervisor funded ‘EU@60’ deeply-rooted Overly involving losses ‘regain trust’ inevitably simultaneous disappointments conclusions disregards diagnoses absent hesitations weakness protects’ typically EU-centred slogans regaining lie pleas analyse situations presents lunch avoids Tortola Vai ‘Differentiated Integration: Way Forward Instituto Affari Internazionali ‘Europe Would-be Power: Fifty’ 74 sensitive; facts relevant networks1 Nothing men lasts (Monnet) problematic frantically searches devoted institutionalise well- landscapes unpacking naming shaming dedicated (creating agencies) network-building persistent (major) (most) shortened missing statistics 76 administration complement helping waves appropriately designed reflection ‘management deficits’ organisational taboo other’s qualities administrations reputation successfully explanations demanded improbable advances ‘completion’ ’1992-programme’ learn (multi-level) wil volk? Erosie democratische rechtsstaat 104 Juni Metcalfe ‘Building integration; Commission’ Eipascope 1996/2: 2-8 Jordan networked Oxford 77 overloaded EU´s abilities overburdened redesigned;7 re-regulation utilities telecoms networks; suffered crises;8 statistical bureaus varied enormously quality;9 liberalisation traffic wave stream Six packs Banking Boards12 reinforced offices formalising Pack) eastward ‘Nonmajoritarian Limits Democratic Theoretical 157 (2001): 57-78 Wright ‘Network Union: network’ Transformation Executive Branch ARENA Workshop Oslo 4-6 Vos Food Safety Aftermath BSE Crisis’ Consumer (September 2000): 227-255 Sverdrup ‘Administering Information: Statistical Integration’ Egeberg Multilevel Administration Palgrave 363–384; Stevens (2010 Air transport Macmillan ibid ‘Wat CPB’s zeggen governance’ 69/2 unsustainability requirements frameworks 306 Vice-President Frans Timmermans stated: inspiration aspiration; guides actions; Keynote Tilburg 78 agency “hundreds administrations” loosely coupled exchanges bite upgrading share instruments) interdependencies voluntary numerous bind Ensuring (‘agencies’18) distance longer-term short-termism Agencies governments19 Agency-networks expertise EUPAN Thematic Paper: Enhancing eupan eu/files/repository/20150205171037_RomeDG_-_13_-_Institutional_Capacity_Building p12 Toolbox Practioners (April Everson Role Specialised Decentralising Risk Science Inclusiveness Effectiveness Connex Book Series: Mannheim exercise functions’ ‘Functional Interests: Agencies’ Peterson Shackleton 2002: 292-325 Regulating Routledge: York integration: 79 managed Managed quality-control facilitating Strong networks22 well-established centres Codes penalise conformity Essential organise well-designed EU-network (‘isomorphology’23) networks) caveats popular former’s ‘technocracy’ complements conflicts (even democratic checks) understood determining leadership resistances personalities victim interferences illiberal staffed drastically cut counterbalance financially EU-funded happened Maccio Cristofoli endurance networks: pivotal manager’ 2017;1–17 ‘Coordinated governance: self-organising centrally steered?’ 83(1) (2005): 201-220 Sorensen Torfing (2007) Theories Palgrave/Macmillan ‘After 1992: Manage Australian (1992): 117-30 Bugarič Protecting Democracy Hungarian Challenge London: LSE 79/2014 defines ´Rule law´ (Rechtsstaat État droit ‘legality’) impersonal application alike entity majority) elite judiciaries intrinsically Broadly distribute legitimate adherence accession Copenhagen wanting Conditionality EU-accession strides directions Fundamental Rights Agency confined Annex details) hierarchical dialogue admonishment peer-pressure (open method Charter Hillion ‘Overseeing Legal means’ Analysis (January Kochenov Law: Veneration Autonomy Worth It?’ Yearbook (2015): 1-23 notable linkages/overlap indices Elbasani Sabic ‘Rule enlargement’ (May encouraged (financially) professionalisation (autonomous) 81 coordination) (informal) (EU non-EU) network-type Judicial (EJN) (EUPAN) Integrity Practitioners (ENIP) Equality Bodies (Equinet) unite inter-institutional Rights´31 Taken informal ad hoc resembles Process 2000s 2010s impressive soft We agency-based recommendations: limitations benchmarking exercises recognised institution-building explicitly parcel monitored systematic usefulness EU-agency-based (FRA) https://europa d66 nl/content/ uploads/sites/240/2016/04/EU-Pact-on-Democracy-Rule-of-Law-and-Fundamental-Rights europarl eu/oeil-mobile/summary/1457350?t=e&l=en 82 aspiration urgently Annex: Instrument/policy Description Limitations/criticism Enforcement (sanctions) 258-260 TFEU Infringement Binding judgments penalties violations EU-law doctrinal ignores patterns condemnation possibility suspension voting Unanimity consider Evaluation Ad-hoc ongoing Non-binding issued definition confidential deadlines invoke risking arbitrariness Cooperation Verification Temporary civil society deemed justice Reports resolutions Ultimately families condemn government) 83 Freedom Justice; Schengen Evaluations Frontex Schengen-acquis elements Until evaluations (peer reviews) evaluation Home visitations committee Focuses combat Anti-Corruption picture State: outstanding report) Dialogue (thematic) rotating Limited prone self-appraisal Monitoring (information provision) Reporting thematic request Sharing maintaining scope excluding Media Pluralism Monitor pluralism Scoreboard Mainly qualitative examination jure matters penal constitutional 84 Programme (SRSP) Provides assistance assist Dependent regional) Funds (sometimes Pech Scheppele ‘Illiberalism Within: Backsliding (August Forthcoming ‘Upholding ‘Pre-Article Procedure’ Timid Step Direction’ Constitutional 512-540 Dimitrova Limitations Romania’ MAXCAP Series level? Pillar published Dimension affirmed dissociated paved revision hotly contested Posted Workers Importantly ‘yellow card’ parliaments Finally Gothenburg proclaimed paradigm succession trend: steered austerity came one-sided Package signaled ‘Below radar’ gradually my contention triggered beginning cautious Zeitlin Vanhercke ‘Socializing Semester: co-ordination beyond’ Published online: 86 results? elaborate delivery essentially signals upshot features participating States’ policies; ‘convergence’ (not: uniformity) ‘some’ domains) Admittedly corollary 1990s advent supply-side flexibility: interwoven ‘enabling’ ‘flexicurity’ immediate aftermath gained ‘structural reform’; decentralize bargaining ‘flexibility’ nutshell adds ‘stability’ desideratum ‘flexibility’: avoidance briefly insight prominence nearly unions ‘insurance unions’ centralize Next stabilisers; expression ‘paradigm’ loose scientific fullyfledged follows summary ‘Structural versus competition: 065 Directorate-General 87 re-insurance schemes happenstance: purchasing ‘automatic stabiliser’ par excellence Existing opt downright centralisation (like Germany) reinsurance combine decentralisation insurance) behaviour pooling enhances asymmetric applies symmetric se externality; insures sustain shortterm; coverage schemes; segmentation insured unemployment; proliferation insurance; unemployed individuals; buffers automatic stabilisers bad fortiori imperative quid pro quo systems; ‘stability-related’ testifies coherence organized categories: market; fair conditions; inclusion well-known scene adequate wages communication ambitious: said “delivering citizens” dumping” 88 paragraphs symmetry totally uncoordinated re-emerging witness Director favour coordinated particular; implicitly sustains decentralization abandoned associated policies: equipping skills empower recreate action: vulnerable individuals: stabilises ‘protective’ Enabling protective mutually reinforcing cross-border posting regimes transparent predictable universal analytical (i) ‘social corollary’ (ii) Market; partly overlap Buti Turrini Overcoming inertia (http://voxeu org/article/overcoming-eurozone-wage-inertia) 89 Important reached proposition jury ideational interpreted signaling handicapped facilitates flourishing developmental psychology holding answers broad-felt ‘caring Simultaneously clear-cut concept: clarity substance notions insurance’ investment’ delicate opposed EU27 “primarily conceived wishing it” analytically coherent Barnard Baere (eds Anton Hemerijck uses ‘holding environment’ capture ‘Social psychiatry responsive nurturing milieu child mother’s caregiver’s preoccupation her soothe comfort tension infant Ideally reflects child’s responds responsivity termed empathic (J Edgerton American Psychiatric Glossary 7th Edition Washington DC: Coining beautiful notion onto 90 outset launching huge risk: justiciable ‘rights’ language speaks enshrined backfire roadmap Delivery presupposes Pillar’s principles: legislation; benchmarking; surveillance priorities: wish-list half-heartedly sketched writing waiting Franco-German axis worrying: excludes fit ‘fiscal capacity’ ‘common lending’ etcetera wishes counterproductive mind interest: vital tackled feature stormbestendig? 105 België Nederland: kleine welvaartsstaten 34ste Pacificatielezing Breda backlash Britain’s Donald Walloon-inspired near-death Canada-EU (CETA) trajectory ‘annus horribilis’ attempted reclaim Spurred declared “wind sails” agreed Japan talks Mexico Australia member-states Mercosur Others withdrawn Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) mega-deal Pacific Rim economies; NAFTA; threatened withdraw WTO; Canadian lumber airplane imports; initiated investigations China survey inextricably experiment scale: tariffs freedom spread ideas Besides cultivate protectionist sentiment alarm bells entitled ‘harnessing globalisation’ describes “shape globalisation” ‘left behind’ counter Eurosceptic populist 92 enhanced Firstly sign coming translate undermine Arguably Justice’s ruling division EU-Singapore ruled content “exclusive ratified only; portfolio investor-state ‘mixed competences’ ratification parts; non-direct bulk mandatory (TTIP) CETA association Imagine ones? Singapore precedent negotiations; certainly helped distributive winners losers empirical unconvincing compensation retraining adjustment negatively affected abandon Globalisation Adjustment displaced damaging citizen increases weaker steaming 93 Fundamentally identification loyalty Either engaging audiences trade; heads scrutinising scepsis grow regardless brings Member-states unanimity provoking friction satisfy trade-sceptics TTIP Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) heavy ISDS arbitration adversely affects 1960’s TTIP’s critics rallied sparked sovereign regulate multilateral Vietnam Court’s ice welcome collapse objection table; UK-EU contain delays something prepare convince Prior anti-TTIP lobby audiovisual chlorinated chicken lightning-rods publics naïve carving silence well-funded well-organised antitrade 94 Trump’s champion relies fast-track — ‘level playing field’ Chinese exporters undercut producers stringent undermines dumping TPP persuade observe world’s largest way? faster WTO’s grounds talked ‘Buy European’ American’ reciprocity screen Though ‘softly softly’ ‘bull china shop’ House’s appellate Organisation WTO abhors 95 remembering convenient finger ‘in freezer’ Trump; quiet office social-democrats eyed feared sell constituencies Mathias Fekl Sigmar Gabriel pulled plug Hillary Clinton door House ajar deeply unpopular politician walk Washington’s urgency precipitated wreak havoc happening Whether listen entirely inconvenient truth