A European Social Union. 10 Tough nuts to crack

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A European Social Union: 10 tough nuts to crack – 1 EUROPEAN SOCIAL UNION TOUGH NUTS TO CRACK Frank Vandenbroucke with Bart Vanhercke Background report for the Friends of Europe Working Group on ‘Social Union’ February 2014 Insert OSE logo? | Future 2 3 UNION: Vandenbroucke1 This draws joint research (European Observatory and CESO KULeuven) who co-authored introduction sections 4 5 Section benefited from an essential contribution by Terry Ward (Applica) provided data in Appendix We are much indebted John Morley drafted executive summary inspiring discussions detailed comments Many thanks Tony Atkinson Fabrizio Barca Thomas Bender Vincent Corluy Christophe Degryse Anton Hemerijck Peter Lelie Sebastiano Sabato Loukas Tsoukalis Anne Van Lancker Rudi Dam HerwigVerschueren Pascale Vielle Jonathan Zeitlin several researchers staff members their critical feedback interns Valentina Recalcati Francesca Cattarin Antonino Sorrenti valuable assistance All interpretations any errors that remain sole responsibility authors Corresponding author: frank vandenbroucke@kuleuven be Table contents List Abbreviations Executive Summary Introduction: purpose scope Five years economic crisis: unsettling legacy Economic social developments Europe: worrying observations spending Europe’s performance world map welfare states The human capital asymmetry: disparate levels educational achievement Increased labour migration 6 investment imperative Why a basic consensus Model is necessity dimension Eurozone: functional political arguments EU28: restoring regulatory capacity de facto dumping Reduced legal authority shared notion solidarity Union EU’s five decades traditional Community method Court’s activism EU distributional mode Policy coordination Dialogue Towards Is convergence necessary? as common agenda? Mainstreaming policy objectives overall governance architecture EMU? Enhanced compliance exchange more solidarity? stabilisation mechanism An agreement minimum wages support sustainable mobility? 7 Increasing effectiveness income protection initiatives? 8 Strengthening dialogue? 9 Improving EMU’s democratic legitimacy through better governance? Education pan-European priority From sense survival Bibliography 1: over crisis 2: trade AGS Annual Growth Survey ERDF regional Development Fund BEPG Broad Guidelines CSF Common strategic framework CSR Corporate Responsibility ESF fund CJEU Court Justice GDP Gross Domestic Product DG Directorate General ILO International Labour Organisation EAPN Anti-Poverty Network IMF Monetary EC MIP Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure ECB Central Bank MMF Multiannual Financial Framework ECOFIN Affairs Council NEET Not (engaged) Employment or Training NGO Non-governmental organization EDP Excessive Deficit NRP National Reform Programme EEC NSR Strategic Report EES Strategy OECD Co-operation EESC Committee OMC Open Method Coordination ECJ PISA Student Assessment EMU QMV Qualified Majority Voting EPM Performance Monitor (EPM) Regional RQMV Reverse SGP Stability Pact ESI Structural Investment Funds SILC Statistics Income Living Conditions ESSPROS System Protection ESU SIP Package ETUC Trade Confederation SPC SPPM SPSI Inclusion EMCO TFEU Treaty Functioning EPAP platform against poverty UK United Kingdom EPSCO Health Consumer its Member States failing deliver fundamental goals project: simultaneous pursuit progress both within countries progressive development between upward across In reality average real household incomes per head were lower EU28 2012 than they had been 2004 divergence Eurozone instead Although recovery now announced budgetary terms risk persistent low growth challenge demographic ageing makes cohesion even challenging With being held largely responsible current state affairs public opinion there rising euroscepticism many decreasing interest elections Hence urgent need review Union’s way can pursued achieved That why – independent think-tank analysis debate has launched high-level ‘European aimed at bringing these concerns top agenda final will produced autumn which include set recommendations incoming Commission Parliament focus primarily employment policies not dwell other such macro-economic financial markets banking supervision furthering internal market integration external taxation environmental issues etc important it maintain compatibility them Moreover aim provide roadmap rather specific background focuses particularly problematic since constitute crucial significance project but should balanced message citizens those living all face major challenges future whether belong Part economy jury still out regarding robustness setbacks recent tackled series identified addressed below rates earlier including EU15 whole when we exclude Germany gap southern others growing larger was only marginally higher excluding no earlier; 13 new Changes show different pattern There significant fall 2008-2010 (in line head) bigger decline subsequent two reflecting earnings along rise unemployment Data material deprivation measured stress lack access goods services adds disquiet standards While proportion population affected declined markedly 2005-2008 rose under 13% 2008 15 5% Young people have hard hit recession youth rate increasing around 23% double Greece Spain figures may some cases overstate problem number young education training so-called NEETs also very high Huge disparities child non-convergence during signal excessive imbalances partly due divergences before already gradual member As entered first narrowed 2009 however highest recovered quickly widened again Public increased significantly relative period downturn consequence acceleration government expenditure slightly preceding four less EU13 act automatic stabilisers aggregate demand address stage this case albeit varying extent 2010 onwards became increasingly constrained notably sovereign debt reduced considerably Even 2008- measures taken counter deflationary effects global general fixed formation result reduction 15% 2008-2012 same occurred developing maintaining covering care health maintained most cut back following year 2011 tertiary often childcare available onset expansion nearly Government though Baltic Bulgaria Ireland Slovakia Hungary where Portugal further reductions facing ever expanding opportunities expressed about effect competitiveness Finland Netherlands private combined 11 shows little sign deterioration developed economies export shares However continuing especially underscores evident began fact correlation ranking among 30% figure Global Competitiveness Index World Forum Swedish level does prevent 6th If evidence se hinders continuous battle nevertheless seem effective efficient allocation huge disparity associated differences underlines Europe-wide reform view improve Differences large example one three Spaniards aged 25 34 having secondary six simple causal relationship explains attainment notable Italy combine weak scores old students recognized early school-leavers headline targets 2020 Yet while comprehensive fails receive attention deserves decision-making setting budget priorities free movement feature inception risen past decade entry Eastern flow working age slowed remains Romania into Cyprus Before men women EU12 joined 2007 tended born country concerned During increase Freedom defining constitutes right Europeans; answer tenacious problems play positive role fail regard migrants societies Poverty reported our residents national opposite perspective dramatic loss 12 inclusive success technological infrastructure physical assessment benefits costs investments subject judgemental rules requiring long wide order measure full impact just initial incidence respect reflects existence stages substantial compensating returns central productive phase life drawing down accumulated reserves towards end concerns: inter-dependence latter depend quality resources spill-over failure place serious long-term debilitating disruptive burden Obviously outcomes increases panacea; differ systems redistributive Welfare depends complementarity means adequate transfer Ten ago quest operational description might dismissed ‘interesting’ strictly necessary given State governments compromise ‘muddle through’ Today everything ‘European’ seemingly up question existential conundrum distinguishes applying specifically then considers apply Three reasons needs dimension: Functional argument fits broader consequences monetary unification currency area trade-off symmetry flexibility inevitable Flexibility implies choices socially neutral: ‘high road’ approach based highly skilled versatile force ‘low deregulation Less necessitates degree limits diversity accommodated union absorbing asymmetric shocks transfers absence interstate fiscal seen flaw design Since neutral tradeoffs implied inevitably requires participating establish serve Political undermines credibility difficult take steps consolidate longer term agree longer-term consolidation ‘fiscal union’ sustainability ultimately mutual trust each other’s fabric High reflect deficit vicious circle underperforming Such ‘bad equilibria’ create objective required words threaten thus manage rebuild somewhat haphazard process led restored either analyst ‘eroded sovereignty (the authority) autonomy (de capacity) policy’ regards long-standing concern without harmonisation would lead ‘race bottom’ fears ‘welfare tourism’ well-founded empirically causing considerable tensions if scale blatant illegal work exploitation do occur confronted conflict desire businesses see opened migrant workers meet appears opposed variety competition jobs wider upheavals uphold context issue Judgments actions defending local raise answered They require clarification posted application subsidiarity principle illustrates how unanticipated provisions short tidy separation (belonging supranational sphere) spheres) inspired ‘horizontal clause’ via Lisbon architecture; clause account ‘the promotion guarantee fight exclusion health’ (Article TFEU) So far appear played instance macroeconomic adjustment programmes must understanding panEuropean refers individual rights Solidarity hand 14 insurance redistribution balance obligations dual complex multidimensional consecutive enlargements well made demanding handle Conceptually form practice mixture Both aspects presuppose reciprocity emphases When defined embedded contribution-based entitlements entails propensity cooperate share values back: trade-offs matched damaging resolute action promote Pragmatic observers sometimes justify ‘muddling successful looks risky erosion needed continued cooperation obliges cover States’ i e what another owe strengthened: deepening mobility principles regulation systemic key functions guide basis leave decisions ways explicit purpose: hence expression 3: part provides presentation ‘state play’ after underlining call builds denies acquis exists raises vexed idea fitted existing Here discusses variants day-to-day policymaking: method; mode; coordination; dialogue 4: offers window opportunity afresh May Members office November power December president Recent initiatives field Dimension proposal contractual arrangements think truly ‘tough crack’ Tough nut run concomitant today note deliberately avoided ‘harmonisation’ aspiration reconciled legitimate characterises Question: characterizes EU? least above next direction pursue concept emerged response changes ‘prepare’ individuals families adapt various transformations simply ‘repairing’ damage caused misfortune poor prevailing inadequacies It childhood preventing school-leaving lifelong learning affordable (as active inclusion strategy) housing (fighting homeless) accessible helping live independently presupposes appropriate ‘protecting capital’ instruments (cash care) ‘developing activation Do ‘social investment’ ‘pact’ spirit extending Commission’s Package? orientation become semi-sovereign: regained limiting regaining definition acceptance solid agreed label ‘shared sovereignty’ exactly proposed (3 7) answering shed light overarching question: What type sovereignty? 16 step therefore mainstreamed surveillance separate pillar’ mainstreaming yes strands? firstly On well-performing cannot Under conditions complement constructive (together surveillance) contracts achieving commonly structural reforms imposing ‘top-down’ fashion questions funds avoid overlapping clear commitment ensure together strengthen merely substitute efforts Can contribute alongside policies? consistent complementary tools? instantiate ‘solidarity reform’ way? 5: badly counter-cyclical previously ‘Four Presidents’ took board equipping shock absorption gained Some proposals emphasise propose ‘interstate insurance’ triggered indicators Others argue favour Unemployment Insurance scheme symmetric business cycle How assess technical) feasibility schemes? 6: French German cross-border giving organized Could binding encouraged jeopardizing arrangements? 17 7: Proposals tabled (EAPN) give substance salience ‘caring Europe’ agreements introduced flexibly gradually unison (not absolute relatively median States) moderate ambition effort poorer Nevertheless enhance efficiency domestic systems? 8: partner structures prerequisite revamping tool Questions: could fruitful forward dialogue: building sectoral dialogue; Semester; broadening Dialogue? Should direct (e g enhanced Funds)? And particular focus? 9: Developing procedures One imagine formations (EPSCO) meeting Similarly (and arguably should) organize dedicated ‘Eurozone’ sessions discussion decision partners taking initiative start negotiations EU18 Would creating two-speed Europe? 10: formidable challenge: namely domain matter here go believe Europeans credible strategy? tangible area? 18 EU-level ongoing processes caring model misunderstandings First parallel pillar added pillars because areas holds Second top-down ‘one size all’ policymaking needed: combination greater room manoeuvre opt strategies guidance well-defined making maximum use State: Third achievements half-a-century underestimated reformist gives future: pact signs look guided mainly management Without possible overcome crisis; combat mounting euroscepticism; offer kind optimistic prospects parents once enjoyed Moving ‘sense survival’ purpose’ condition 19 parcel Rome 1957 (through states) Union) founding fathers optimistically assumed reached (namely liberalization ‘four freedoms’ single market) raising standard (which later brought EU’s ‘economic territorial’ policy2) boost growth; redistribute fruits remaining prerogative Indeed ‘‘Member upon improved so make […] ensue functioning systems’’ 117) words: Spaak (1956) genuine belief spontaneous systems3 Ohlin logic behind belief: ‘when strength sympathy aspirations [this will] deteriorate’ (Ohlin 1956: § 210)’ yet convergence: supposed witnessed ceased veritable ‘convergence machine’ used be4 goals: euro scepticism participation possibility bound minimal Preamble) Communication published 1965 ‘territorial’ (of abridged unofficial English translation available) stipulated : ‘La tendance spontanée l’harmonisation des systèmes sociaux et niveaux salaire ainsi que l’action syndicats en vue d’obtenir un alignement dans les travail seront favorisées par la création du marché commun’ (Spaak 1956 :65) doubt created (integrating dozen high-income countries) Gill Raiser (2012) 20 starting conviction find reconcile ambitions try ‘specialist-only’ corner bring group (EU national) policymakers stakeholders experts months (January-October 2014) times Chatham House goal produce confined directly related fully aware importance Within realm moreover intend broad pensions although preclude puts lot emphasis disproportionate point readers outside wellbalanced true intra-European drastically reduce emissions… position bleak creates presumption international co-operation organised follows contrasts facts 2004-2012 enter causes merits demerits responses reader advocated transpire document predicament (among nexus education-employment) failures too ‘one-size-fitsall’ underlying fundamentals; reason luxury; impatient wonder insert elaborate underscore premised denial exists; secondly 21 well-versed time decide sentences bold proposes ten crack’: solve mind summarizes concludes move purpose? 22 At moment writing certainly say over’ Meanwhile protracted inside present deeply summarize space limitations allow us learned excellent analyses reports ‘Employment Developments concerning strengths weaknesses publications Eurofound job quality5 apart ‘employment gap’ signalling illustrate Overall 2013 lower) change relevant indication (along Average 6% 20% 12% percentage materially deprived disquieting observation Material index nine items relating enforced list durables persons interview considered refer ability (1) pay See references bibliography Chapters (2013e) trends dynamics confronting chapters forthcoming (2014) 23 rent mortgage utility bills; (2) keep home adequately warm; (3) unexpected expenses; (4) eat meat protein regularly; (5) holiday; (6) buy television (7) washing machine (8) car (9) telephone boom (from three) stagnated; stable 8% marked (On indicator Malta rose; illustrating caution interpreting survey results ) emerges mid-2013 biggest half 15-24 unemployed By 59% 56% 50% Croatia 40% (As explained presented fulltime education; neither employed nor children experienced explanation caveats parameter ‘at-risk-of-poverty rate’ crude headcount: households threshold depth severity faced headcount defines relation happens living: floating thresholds normally every decreased decrease income: favourable non-poor anchoring observed Figure 1-A: at-risk-of-poverty 34% 10% Denmark second 2000s displayed tendency converge (to lesser extent) anchored initially Poland Lithuania Estonia traditionally Sweden Simultaneously exceptions (low increase) (high rates) contrary base SILC); 2011; Irish 24 dispersion calculated illustrated 1-B For 28% Spanish lived threshold; 36% At-risk-of-poverty (floating thresholds) retrieved Eurostat website; (SILC) 1-B: risk-of-poverty website statistics time; ‘convergence’ ‘divergence’ technical comes define desirable pertains describing satisfactory (during time) ‘excessive imbalances’ return ‘child time’ reasonable fairly whose head7 2% 2001 7% went uncertain hoped turn norm correcting Chapter ‘Convergence aspects’ 2014: 279-319) 1999 halted simultaneously points elements Over 2010-2012 last banks previous exceeded 3% entire ‘automatic stabilisation’ accelerated occurs stabilizers Analyses finegrained paragraph did stabilizing To comparable PPS (Purchasing Power Parities) 26 mitigated poverty; poverty-reducing austerity expect levelled off 60% equated ‘maintaining’ (where Portugal) widespread 2008-2011 Latvia widely followed similar healthcare came halt Real (though Slovakia) regarded potential majority hardest provision Governments career accordingly element reducing equality EU-wide Statistics) virtually throughout ‘internal devaluations’ severe pre-Maastricht version situation Greer outlook signed Memorandum Understanding Adjustment Programmes likely implemented negative detrimental equity unpredictable incumbent elites preserve positions (Greer 2013) Stuckler Basu (2013) conclude leading public-health disaster ‘austerity kills’ 27 extended duration institutional constraints typical ‘collective action’ borne subset devaluations These cuts justified analysts fundamentally unavoidable consider unsustainable contrast predominantly high-spending insufficiently flexible justice conflicting perspectives ranks (on horizontal axis) according Forum’s 2013-2014 vertical axis display latest 2009) aggregated difference private/public mix (Adema al 2011) cost factor impacts prima facie score spending) 28 Among competitive conceived (we excluded Singapore Hong Kong noted De Grauwe Polan (2003) assume simultaneity causality directions Thus generate value attain allows spend Conversely influence productivity channel affects nations hinder highlight examines total exports unlike come section compatible comparison Figures suggests like achieve good competiveness (see 2) performs worse counts inefficiently carries weight contradict cost-efficiency delivered 6) improving 29 maps indicators: record strong Northern linked capacitating (Hemerijck subsection system generally inadequate Cash fragmented phenomenon seems inadequacy cash presence multi-generational ‘extended families’ (Vandenbroucke Given pension prepare ‘pension-heavy’ rely vulnerable (Cantillon 30 resist easy recipes suggest ‘silver bullet’ profiles combines 2012: bracket 64 mapping legacies hand: New south-western quadrant typically formal objected misleading left 40 information comparing generation 55 distance blue actual younger older 31 education) impressive Greece; qualification (their comparatively high) Progress generations today’s data: 25-29 attained 15-year-olds 2000 fields mathematical scientific literacy reading skill 32 Educational Southern compared employment; More cohort applies connection let alone But leaving aside outliers Luxembourg struck apparent exceptionally societal offered recognises schoolleavers singled skills issued Recommendations modernization systems9 (2012e) ‘Rethinking Education’; Commission(2013h) Monitor; 2013f) (2013g) Adult Skills (PIAAC); 33 sufficient priorities; simplistic whilst disinvesting immigration regions flows origin destination10 motive11: temporary prominent rarely permanent settlement Galgoczi Lescke post-2004 historically respects Different forms coexist: commuting short-term circular ‘functional equivalents’ migrations (bogus) self-employment birth (hence posting commuting) 35 counties EU10 4-fold 2004-2008 doubled 2005 net outward slower slow-down Bulgarians Romanians substantially inward equally 2004- North Africa) Inward small outflow ‘Mind Gap inequality (NESSE 2012; 2012d) ‘mature’ (Western) transformed status third quarter 20th century ‘New’ (Southern Nordic latecomers) receiving 1990s ‘Future’ currently source immigrants (Kaczmarczyk 2012) asylum-seekers 1989 family predominant 20-34 19% beyond schooling Austria profile nationals States; occupied and/or over-educated fell acted partially buffers experience shown remedy bottlenecks Rica confirms gaps natives Migrants occupy markets; discuss (for Lelkes Zolyomi develop vision Fundamentally goes under-utilization risks differentiated citizenship citizenship; strategy changing patterns emergence generating adverse demography reform-oriented dynamic sector Morel involves:  high-quality childcare; paid life; retirement accordance expectancy; seizing things proper market; service (2013a b) Resolution topic presents interesting school 36 homelessness) view12 emphasizes naïve deny said Security illness disability divorce child-bearing society instability borrow terminology seminal Cost-Benefit: R Prest Turvey (1965) 37 Whereas distinguish (now comprising States13) additional foremost textbooks unions wage price determine country’s ‘internal’ (i regulated mechanisms ‘Kurzarbeit’ force… mixed preferences mere theory optimal explaining purely sustaining imply details organisation parameters insistence ages indexed longevity interpreted sense: link plausible Next well-known trade-off: Knowing limited spite prices ‘sticky’ Pursuing argued suffers shocks: adopted 1st January 38 EMU: perverse feedback-mechanisms push inhibit reaction described correct equipped compensate moment; called ‘altruistic redistribution’ enlightened self-interest 4) Neither indeed sensitive degrees freedom age; achievements; migration… exact opposite: Elsewhere I 2013b) describes affect differently (thus ‘imbalances’) ‘similar problems’ poorly performing states: Youth examples Politically threatens steadily undermine Reasoning ‘us’ ‘them’ South’ versus North’ gain lose creation fully-fledged Commissioner László Andor warns heading ‘steadily weakening pro-European mainstream disastrous membership democracy compatible’ (Andor 2013: 3) Sustaining entities example) synonymous cause get trapped equilibrium’ sum managing repairing reasons) normatively charged 39 Several transcend Stephan Leibfried eroded conduct own ’ (Leibfried 2010: 254) lost control pressures integrated transferred authority: ‘The [EU] centre generates social-policy producing mandates (…) Diminished memberstate weakness restricts innovative (Ibid 278) regulate negatively innovate far-reaching induces downward pressure (‘social dumping’) advanced qualified (mostly women) heavy manual (men) transport Intensified intra-EU whereby lowest production Maslauskaite nuanced discussion) spectre large-scale never materialized enlarged resulting interplay lacunae (domestic) implementation heterogeneous entity Fears tourism Postwar itself emigration region: EU14 sharply (Diez Guardia Pichelmann 2006; acquired population15 studies emphasize broadly (European) host (fiscal) gains offsetting shortand medium term16 doing integrating foreign overrepresented informal low-skilled low-paid atypical collar sector; destination (pointing ‘brain waste’) addition except numbers intraEU Of foreign-born worldwide EU; nonEU grandparents abroad 11% returned spouse 2012:7) Population themselves fertility tend resemble conclusive sizeable unprecedented) migration17 EU8 accessed disturbances countries18 ‘Polish plumber’ debate19 France re-emerged Similar UK20 tense neighbouring Ukraine Belorussia gave stark patterns21 easily resolved perfectly heated debates ending transitional restrictions Bulgarian Romanian ‘liberal paradox’ (Hollifield 2008): globalising open finance security forces restrictive protectionist confront able legislation Migration fit Ministers (December controversial posting-of-workers enforcement directive resolve administrative practical abuse circumvention regulations fraudulent practices temporarily revised falls Merely few (May liability subcontracting chains Out million recorded originated former communist CEE EU-27 accounted movements 2012:9) Diez (2006) follows: ’Turning surprisingly immigration-induced composition Exploiting expanded datasets statistically economically subsets workforce reduces unskilled-intensive sectors Likewise leads sharp comparably imperfect substitutes endogenous native exposure specializing occupations build comparative advantage communication-intensive tasks Furthermore females supply availability firms adjust technologies prominence becoming symbol undesirable eastern British Prime Minister David Cameron treaties changed withhold allowances immediately deep inflow Czech Republic Ireland); hardly Austria); strongly intensified Denmark) 41 wages: Viking Laval judgments unions’ matters precedence liberal applicable thought paragraph; signalled legislative Mario Monti (2010) raised his March widen Bruun Bücker enough ought equal freedoms blocked parliaments using ‘alarm procedure’ highlights deeper resisted collective bargaining no-go authorities; applied judgements unsustainable: argues predictable imposed companies post accepted mean reconsider respective roles authorities nationwide politically contexts operates intrinsic imperatives trans-border services; communities nationally duties Ferrera 2005) Direct imposition ‘market requirements’ ‘negative Pierson ’Predictability’ respected providers Blauberger preserves bargaining: ‘[B]oth reaffirm introduce exercise correspond ‘hard core’ directive’ (p 117-118) Danish game ‘subsidiarity’ write ‘politically’ sentence nature (linked SMEs) intervene unnecessary harmful past; cf coalition’s 42 (1995) Treaty: policy25 mobile entrenching non-discrimination nationality limit citizens; insist territory; exclusive administer migrants’ claims piecemeal closely law activity entrepreneurial obviously: activity? regime implying exclusively Fortunately acknowledge non-economic exemption treaty’s distinction ‘economic’ ‘welfare’ (or ‘solidarity’) always clear-cut continually redrawing fine ‘solidarity’ 1960s 900 topics agriculture placed first) thirds decides case-by-case great deal insecurity range options prohibited) (elaborated below) blame ‘Europe’ makers solutions reluctant asking ‘Do activity?’ put ‘To organise point: driven irrespective funded reimburse obtained patients waiting lists) ask prior authorization ambulatory uncertainties surrounding settled Directive (2011/24/EU) Patients’ Rights Cross-border Healthcare (Council reaches paragraphs 43 patient hindering ownership (who optician’s shop?) planning (can pharmacies geographical area?) hospital not-for-profit status?) professionals quota doctors uncertainty fixing aid contracting payers heart (CJEU) tries deciding applicability indirect (but unlikely) ‘services interest’ systems; certainty neat issues’ belonging sphere spheres emphasising ordering clearer grey institutions found Article formulates requirement Will role? Opinions diverge EESCs (legally binding) represents intends draw annual (EESC 9TFEU remained dead letters Witte competences establishment pro-active 2010:34) incorporation (Ibid: 36); Internal Market Services recalls (EP (esp Commission) Impact Assessments (SIA) limited: SIA’s generalised policies; SIA visible designing necessarily rhetorical statement plays deliberations mentioned unintended hours junior perform 44 judgement27 Opinion) reference 9) Potentially Advocate referred Opinion workers) revision reasoning court: “To primary mandatory authorises safeguarding certain restrict law’s something exceptional warranting strict interpretation” (Case C-515/08 dos Santos Palhota §53)28 follow refrained referring clearly prompt redirections (Vielle foregoing precise: entertain meaning lives born; benefit medical residence… obligations… duality views concerned: ‘we’ (multidimensional) denying (national vs EU) virtuous Consecutive intrinsically handle29 convergence’ enlargement dumping’ demonstrated politics ‘mutual ‘redistribution’; similarly disposed personal Case C-544/10 Deutsches Weintor eG v Land Rheinland-Pfalz thank pointing Iceland Macedonia Montenegro Serbia Turkey official candidates Albania Bosnia Herzegovina concluded association preparing 45 actors serve: superfluous luxury (an solidarity’ reciprocity) ‘small repairs’ construction addressing flaws Or Andor: sticking Maastricht orthodoxy ‘is sustainable: altered destroyed EMU’s winners losers’ 2013:3) complemented (such stabilisation) substantive model’ (ESU) Fernandes (2013a) convincingly blocks Rompuy’s June 20112a): frameworks (Ibid) (‘If reinforcing feasible feasible’); reinforce Our supports conclusion: deepen capital; Last documented counteract stake support; Eurobarometer continues decline30 destiny supported narrative doomed notwithstanding Note (somewhat) 46 saw (spontaneous) actively more: division labour: adoption Already scholars started arguing obvious community other; visited briefly 2; Eurozone’s conclusion overlook fifty fathers’ assumptions stipulations non-trivial (broadly understood non-discrimination) outlines historical analysed processes? activism31 ideal) (Wallace 2010) involvement story tell Treaties powers treaty requirements variations industrial relations exemptions granted) medium-sized protected burdens obviously coercion (Rhodes activist Brussels obstacles formidable: institutionally unanimity protect prerogatives opposition (notably UK) hurdles anti-discrimination policy32 Parliament’s track pushing 47 Regulation Community: 1959 Regulations No 1408/71 883/2004 gender sound 119 EEC) mid-1970s directives (a) interpretation (b) legitimation ambitious (c) helped protective non-existent States33 catalysts shaping women’s Europe; pure legislation: gender-equal polity critics ‘myth’ (Macrae 171) stance eighties nineties paved Directives Anti-Racism Employment) done Amsterdam prohibition discrimination longstanding ‘nationality’ ‘gender’ grounds ‘racial origins religion sexual orientation’ safety workplace important) Safety Work (89/391 daughter hazards chemical agents (98/24/EC) biological ( 2000/54/EC) electromagnetic (2004/40/EC) asbestos (83/477/EEC) Rhodes ‘treaty-base game’ stretched ‘health safety’ workers’ firm missing Atypical (91/383/EC) Pregnant (92/85/EC) generous countries; allowing voting (QMV) contested Time (2003/88/EC) weekly allowed derogations Workers’ (94/33/EC) prohibited eighteen (again allowed) Works Councils established (Directive 94/45/EC) 1994 reach cross-industry dates mid-1990s 1997 original broadened conditions) (extended issues) worker output Around 60 1987 (Vaubel 2008) Occupational (OSH) parental harassment laws choose stay 160) 48 consultation subjects initiated explicitly strike impose lock-outs chapter blocking minority ‘northern enlargement’ 1995) Parental (96/34/EC) Part-time (97/81/EC) Fixed-term (1999/70/EC) prime Euro-corporatism endowed Reference Examples dismissals (75/129/EEC); procedural redundancies (98/59/EC) employees undertakings (77/187/EEC) worker’s event mergers (2005/56/EC) compensation insolvency (80/987/EEC) importantly machinery unprecedented body Crucially synthesis represented Machinery (89/392/EEC) contributed occupational accidents illnesses (Fraser ‘exported’ rest ISO ‘EN ISO’) (‘market surveillance’) products begs suffering industry representatives devote scarcer Following strengthened treatment occupation 2000/78) aims discriminations Company Statute companies; (2002/14/EC) 2002 moved (2004/113/EC) combating sex (cf removed failed hard-fought 49 attaining non-executive board-member positions: voted overwhelming (November backing abovementioned exposed encountered Finally acquisition preservation supplementary (occupational) excludes transferability Once Single Act (1986) enshrined ‘Cohesion constitutional text 1988 Funds34 meant throwing money problems…It willingness redress groups’ (Delors 1988) undergone radical respects35 (ERDF) (ESF) Cohesion grew modest 1975 (35% 347 billion Euros) 2007-2013 thereby largest item recipient 4% 2004) (about 0 46% Each ‘Delors Packages’ 1992 respectively allocations (Jouen injection sine qua non fairness establishing prospect EMU36 (Manzella Mendez concentrated beneficiaries targeted (since disadvantaged received 81 2007- 2013; 2014-2020 16% repeatedly tried ‘Structural Funds’ rural fisheries ‘independent’) largest: job-creating (mainly businesses) declining 1958 1993 finances environment networks involves co-financing (2014-2020) ‘less developed’ (GDP capita < 75% average) (new intermediate category of) ‘transition region’ 90% ‘more > fourth transformation here: involved 1970’s decided 1969 2009:23) 50 richest eligible funding ‘something everyone’ 2007) (sometimes conflicting) spent programming leeway preferences) (abandoning target approach): embedding socio-economic underwent conditionality Especially controls tightened overly bureaucratic checks multi-annual (inspiring approaches ESF) additionality substituted expenditure) concentration smaller supra) partnership (ensuring NGOs) evaluation monitoring (improving administration) manifold territory multiannual criticism policy-makers academics stakeholders: claim loosely spreading thinly underresourced (d) excessively (macro-) (Allen 2010; Manzella well-documented (micro) van Gerven 2014; Verschraegen wrote request Danuta Hübner he place-based ‘EU’s (Barca He insisted returning enhancement viewing handicaps paradigm aligning dysfunctions which: mantra priorities: (NRP’s)37; Partnership Agreements detail (CSF) governing 37When formally stressed agricultural g) 51 funds38 avoiding overlaps; existed 199439 generalized funds: streams Country-Specific modify resort suspend (CSRs) seriously breached; Ex-ante conditionality: chance effectively implemented; (rather rules) Joint Action Plans counterfactual evaluation; Simplification envisaged ‘cutting red tape’ table wishful thinking); % envelope earmarked (ESI) concrete (one reporting ‘performance reserve’ incentive results) promoting actually shift policy: interested purpose) amount (even course MFF negotiations)40 Agricultural Rural (EAFRD) Maritime Fisheries (EMFF) inherent aspect (1992-1994): criteria join complete catch endowment (transport environment) rationale commitments (until control) beneficiary until invoked subsequently revoked requested conditionalities Other innovations (outside ceilings MFF) Emergency Aid Reserve (humanitarian civil operations disasters State) Globalisation help reintegrate restructuring) Euro 150 2013a) reserve 5%) reward projects; seldom Erasmus+ programme (40% higher) Horizon 2020will (around 30%) predecessor FP7 newly ‘Fund Most Deprived’ (FEAD) food homeless innovation (some facilitate donations sources supermarkets) 52 ‘close field’ security; ‘making delivering opinions arranging consultations’ (Treaty 118) policies: ‘Member shall co-ordinate policies’ 105) conjunctural stipulates ‘shall consult taken’ 103) firmly anchor states’ socalled (BEPG 121 nonbinding monitor consistency Important ‘warning’ conform annually 2003) ‘recommendation’ legally pioneer structured ‘policy coordination’ inspiration looser ‘OECD technique’ (economic surveys 1960s) persuasion soon revealed ineffective coordinating (Math 2002) defend unpopular electorate stability discipline ‘correction’ codify (EES) Extraordinary 199741 (EMCO)42 visibility coined ‘Open Coordination’ (OMC) experimental instrument drew spillover (van Riel der Meer mirrored EES: Conclusions describe best main goals’ 2000: §37) Still guidelines (with timetables) quantitative qualitative benchmarks (against world) Copenhagen Summit signature White Paper contours Essen advisory committees SPC) 53 periodic peer mandate (2000) (2001) (2004) (SPC)43 Importantly ‘at levels’ society/e-Europe 8) 13) ‘OMC’ enterprise wording co-ordination (Zeitlin happened post-Lisbon enthusiasm Level headed Wim Kok assessed stated fallen expectations ‘a improvement process’ (Kok 2004:42) naming shaming faming 43) conclusions re-launched ‘Lisbon II’ focused ‘Jobs’ ‘Growth’ (BEPG) merged ‘Integrated Guidelines’ (NRPs) ‘parallel’ integral weak) corrected replaced intended ‘to smart cohesion’ allencompassing Strategy) concretely pillars: thematic inclusion) Thematic seven flagship ‘Inclusive growth’ 2020’s objectives; 20-64 lifting exclusion; flagships ‘An jobs’ Platform poverty’ (EPAP); finally Integrated Guideline relate Semester starts identifying (AGS) Convergence undertake: Country-specific discussed amended Committees Economics Finance (ECOFIN) 160 54 sight subsumed budgets ‘balance books’ Radical content tools implementing ‘Six-pack’ reinforced (MIP) relies elements: warning ‘MIP scoreboard’ consisting eleven scoreboard Alert Mechanism marks MIP; Preventive action: adopt preventive package corrective arm cases: (EIP) (up 1% GDP) Six-pack reverse (RQMV) sanctions recommendation unless votes ‘semi-automatic decision-making’ procedure wide-ranging (SGP) strengthening fostering strengthens (EDP) breached criterion (sanctions RQMV) furthermore known ‘Two-pack’ Two-pack integrates Fiscal Compact’ law) Unsurprisingly resulted CSRs (Degryse (Costamagna partial rebalancing slowly acquiring trial error begun formalise continue preparation paying poverty) ‘given’ successfully despite Certainly ‘socialization’ Semester’ (Barcevicius slow evolution clarification) remarkable (DG) EMPL surveillance’ analytical toolbox includes (JAF) (SPPM) chosen ‘being tough’ ‘comply explain’ Semester) securing lend prescriptions coming ‘contractual arrangements’ hopes resilient (Social) template areas44 centralized regimes ‘soft’ ‘soft approach’ coordinated Package’ (SIP) 2013a; sets coherent Europeanlevel addresses features encompassing Agendas choice false dichotomy Recommendation ‘Investing Children: breaking disadvantage’ Whether consequently leverage acknowledged besides non-state NGOs intervention the1990s operating lobbying mobilizations (Bauer surprising distinctive OMC: ‘streamlined’ 2006) confirmed ‘reinvigorated’ Roma adopts 2013c) 56 stakeholders’ involving Inbas usefulness (Frazer policy-making enriching knowledge ideas experiences ‘on ground’ enhances stakeholder awareness contributing much-needed Dialogue45 communautaire promoted (TFEU Articles 151-155) submitting directive; amend agreement’s promotes employee representation consulting Reflecting takes levels: Bipartite (launched 1985 Jacques Delors Val Duchesse) (organisations representing employers Tripartite Cross-industry ‘intersectoral’) covers principally (ETUC) BUSINESSEUROPE (private employers) CEEP (public UEAPME (small enterprises) Sectoral EU: brings 62 federations represent employers’ associations set-up bipartite SDC) 000 multinational companies) (also concertation) crossindustry best-known ‘Tripartite Employment’ Decision 2003 ensuring met twice conception input heavily Volume 2’ Mark Carley 2012a) whom 57 Agreement negotiation distinct courses consultations shaped partners’ (very short) ‘golden years’ 1995-1999 Consultations reconciliation professional 1995 agreements: part-time fixed-term accord sea aviation Secondly autonomous Laeken: (independent) (each 2-3 years) teleworking Instead signatories’ organisations ‘in work-related 2006-2008 violence 2009-2010 statements publication guides seminars conferences vein (including railway sector) (frameworks codes orientations) declarations (guides manuals) impressive: 650 texts 1980s three-quarters practice? dealing seafarers’ assigned ‘interoperable’ rail 58 Convention (e) ‘sharp injuries’ needles scalpels) telework Autonomous crystalline silica (a hazardous substance) certificates hairdressing competence whenever impact) crucially –and patchy constraining) evaluate pointed vast array non-binding (OSE faces mismatch waves complicated (Pochet 2003): implement unknown tripartite usually consultative role; wake erode downgrade eliminate bipartite/tripartite decentralized company decentralizing pressures) industries coverage frequently under-resourced absent run-up accession ran projects providing robust explored mildly partners’ (key) unwilling unable negotiate outnumber successes divisions weaken prefers members) bodies oppose withdrawn promoter 59 ‘supporter’ shadow law’ committee drink (January inland waterway transport; football players’ Adopt 188 representativeness (incl chemicals irritants pregnant labelled ‘red challenged government46 concentrate (especially Europe) Perhaps meantime proven promising possibly directives) willing According disproportionately Daily Mail (9 April ‘Hairdressers banned wearing heels jewellery nanny drawn Sun ‘Hair Hitlers’ (10th hairdressers Hairdressers Federation Coiffure representative Building recognise respond clarified intellectually objectives: cracking instruments; explain ‘nut 3’) dissociated: regression mean: ‘harmonisation’: respecting 61 Reconciling stringent differentiation experimentation cracked enhanced? ‘human asymmetry’ wish panacea mutually supportive Successful well-designed ‘Package’ ‘Pact’; committed investment; is: Suppose nuts’ hide tuning undifferentiated orientations semi-sovereign unrelated retain responsibilities bear dimensions regain alternatively surpasses tot (nuts 3-8) methodology constituted straightforward circles ambiguities Refining Scoreboard Imbalances ‘auxiliary’ alert ministers (Barcevičius targets48 recently Genuine nervousness used49 3-7 read exhaustive ‘(social) Also ‘mainstreaming’ Initially add ‘At-risk-of Exclusion’ (AROPE) auxiliary intention enlarge accompanying side 63 ‘scoreboard’ few) inform Council’s confirmation “the relevance indicators” §38) “The developments” §39) unsatisfactory precise vis- à-vis deemed strands perception (Natali 2013:257; Dervis ‘Europe incentives’ Leonard Zielonka (2012: 35) ‘growth compact deficits Spain) percent break spiral sure sucks financing deficit) (EIB) cheating qualifies approval ” Alternatively concentrating outstanding uncommitted investment50 Additional grants/co-financing strand want considerations importance) weary picking council Arginger “all monitored goals) Specifically start-ups unemployment” projects51 Rather re-opening revisits posing re-orient edifice wellperforming reform52 Which well-conceived instrument’ 2012b 2013d) objectively (that reboot convergence) perceived embodying ‘bribery’ (Pisany-Ferry provoke popular resistance bailout ‘(…) sanction Instrument’ debated bilateral tells retake ones launching aiming (2012b) President Rompuy pertain exactly? (involving others)? (Economic Adjustment) excluded53? CSR’s NRP’s suggested Commissariat Général (2013)? really (legal arise54)? Who negotiating renovation university buildings enrolment graduation far: ‘timely correction’ 30) ’sound’ ’before difficulties’ Ibid: 32) attempt sort implicitly acknowledging kicked timing factor: difficulties conditional disbursement authors) stipulate 36) 65 partners?)? (what amounts talking about55?) (loans grants guarantees)? questions; lag envisage top-down56 dictating ‘principal-agent incentives) agreed57 Rubio argument) echo supporting ‘inclusive corresponding expenditures dependent say: resort) payments careful reflection pertinence Vanden Bosch (2013:18-19) estimates vary €30bn €75bn; submitted approval; ‘mutually home-grown’ connected §32) ‘partnerships’ ‘involvement (Tokarski Verhelst penalize Tokarski cap suspended correction sufficient: contradicts reinforces suspensions policies) trigger macro-divergence overlap 66 Operational (OP’s) ‘contracts’ ensured interventions areas59 reformed ‘constructive thus: Does reform’? cyclical circumstances contributes Presidents60‘ 2012b) Recently economists lawyers scientists permanently controlled Germany’s (Glienicker elaboration Allard 2013): (Enderlein Drèze Durré contributors benefactors articles ‘strategic progress’ 1303/2013 laying ‘debate funds’ (Articles 53) ‘summary report’ send 2016 evaluations Presidents Eurogroup 67 (Dullien Marjolin (1975) MacDougall (1978) ‘basic (12 months) beginning organizing proposals61 fifth ‘considering floors fair collective-bargaining Interestingly consideration ‘calling encouraging removing (building EURES platform) facilitating portability mobility’ (Bundesregierung lends decent Admittedly French-German formulated vague Switzerland (Schulten carefully specifies Returning Justice’s resting ‘confirmed’ authorities) accept Accepting embrace mobility62 positively universally affirmed 68 once; definitely evolutions Germany63 UK64 engage sixth therefore: (EAPN in-depth examination heterogeneity behalf extend schemes 2013)66 plans (EC) 987/2009 simplifying granting situations 2013c: 10) coalition agreement: EUR 2015 won’t 2017 debate: Chancellor Exchequer George Osborne pounds hour unusual Britain distribute spoils draft ‘every guarantees 92/441/EEC 2008/867/EC support’ (60% income) (EESC) contracted study introducing guaranteed investigates scenarios equivalised (Peña-Casas 69 rich’ poor’ richer attempts upscale opening putting disposal foreseeable (introducing leverage) bite (this 2020) realistic useful indicated decoupled vice versa intellectual seventh dialogue?67 stepping-stone annex Partner’s invite them?) Funding campaigns networking? Communication)? vehicle improved? formal) views? Thirdly fruit Industrial strategies? ultimate responding CJEU’s transition green economy?) Summing eighth this: forward: NGO’s unimportant uncontroversial 70 arriving mirroring monthly meetings 1998) special deputies gaining traction Sub-Committee(s) elections) (Chopin Fabre Glienicker euro-Treaty euro-budget ninth underscored confronted: tenth selection initiatives: 71 Against backdrop outset sufficiently constraining exploration coincidence favours quo medium-term cherish juncture underestimate discount massive widening twenty-eight 500 accompanied peace barely conceivable post-war reconstruction acquis; quintessence pact’68 getting stronger Maybe near sluggish 72 years; euroscepticism69; (2013b) who’s Scenario C subtitle 73 Adema W P Fron M Ladaique (2011) Really Expensive? OECD: 123 http://piketty pse ens fr/files/Ademaetal2011OECD pdf Brooks K Bluedorn J Bornhorst F Christopherson Ohnsorge Poghosyan T Staff Team ‘Toward Area’ Discussion SDN/13/09 September http://www imf org/external/pubs/ft/sdn/2013/sdn1309 Allen D Competing Pressures Reform?’ Wallace H Pollack (Eds Policy-Making Sixth Edition Oxford: Oxford University Press pp 229-252 L ‘Can orthodoxy?’ VOX voxeu org/article/can-we-move-beyond-maastricht-orthodoxy Aiginger Cramme O Ederer S Liddle Thillaye ‘Reconciling Short Long Run: Governance Reforms Solve Crisis Beyond’ Brief (September Accessed http://ec europa eu/research/social-sciences/pdf/policy-briefswww-for-europe-122012_en (2009) Agenda Reformed Place-based Approach Meeting Challenges Expectations’ Independent prepared europarl eu/meetdocs/2009_2014/documents/regi/dv/barca_report_/bar ca_report_en Barcevicius E Weishaupt Assessing Coordination: Institutional Design Influence Palgrave: Bauer (2002) “The Programmes” Journal Studies 40(3) 381–400 … remaking jurisprudence 19:1 109-126 N Critical II courage ETUI N° 4/2012 helsinki fi/katti/foundations/publications/Policy_Brief-EEESPolicy-N%C2%B04- 2012-EN-5 Bundesregierung ‘France Together Growth’ Pressemitteilung 187/13 Berlin: Presse- und Informationsamt bundesregierung de/ContentArchiv/DE/Archiv17/_Anlagen/2013/05/2013-05- 30-dt-frz-erklaerung-englisch pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=5 Cantillon B (eds Reduction States? 74 Chopin ‘L’Europe sociale levier d’intégration zone euro’ Question d’Europe n°292 Fondation Robert Schuman robert-schuman eu/fr/doc/questions-d-europe/qe-292-fr général ‘Quel projet pour l’Europe?’ d’introduction au débat à stratégie prospective strategie gouv fr/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/CGSP-note-Europe ‘Council 1311/2013 2014-2020’ OJ 20/12/2013 884- 891 http://eurlex eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ do?uri=OJ:L:2013:347:0884:0891:EN:PDF Roadmap Doc 16359/13 (2013c) ‘Recommendation Integration states’ consumer 2011/24/EU patients’ 88/45 ‘Cost-Benefit: Survey’ 75 683- 735 https://courses cit cornell edu/econ335/out/benefit%20cost%20survey Costamagna Action: Weakening Dimension?’ LPF-WEL http://papers ssrn com/sol3/papers cfm?abstract_id=2367768 Managing Fragile CESifo 40-45 Spending 885 cesifo-group de/DocDL/cesifo_wp885 governance’ Brussels: Institute etui org/Publications2/Working-Papers/The-new-European-economic-governance Jepsen Pochet 05 org/Publications2/Working-Papers/The-Euro-crisis-and-its-impacton-national-and-European-social-policies Glitz Ortega Immigration Trends Policies Empirical Evidence IZA 7778 http://ftp iza org/dp7778 (1988) Address parliament Be Austere Growth?’ social-europe eu/2012/06/can-there-be-austere-growth/ Trechsel Damjanović Hellquist Hien Ponzano ‘Legislating Lisbon: Opportunities Parliament’ Florence eui eu/Projects/EUDO/Documents/EUDOLegislatingafterLisbon(SD) Dullien ‘A stabilization device Selected (DG eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10437&langId=en euro-area stabilizer: pays?’ Inclusion) eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10438&langId=en ‘Fiscal stimulation CORE paper 2013/13 http://uclouvain be/cps/ucl/doc/core/documents/coredp2013_13 ‘Labour Patterns Challenges’ Directorate-General n° 256 eu/economy_finance/publications/publication644_en ‘Widening eapn eu/images/stories/docs/NRPs/2013-EAPN-NRP-Report ‘Working Minimum Income’ Anti-poverty network europolitics info/pdf/gratuit_en/279353-en ‘Opinion indicators’ Own-initiative SOC/482 http://eescopinions eesc eu/viewdoc aspx?doc=ces/soc/soc482/en/ces1960- 2013_00_00_tra_ac_en doc ’Opinion ‘Strengthening TFEU’ (own-initiative opinion) 2012/C 24/06 http://eur-lex do?uri=OJ:C:2012:024:0029:0034:EN:PDF Enderlein Guttenberg Spiess ‘Blueprint area’ Reports Notre –Jacques eng notre-europe eu/011-16659-Blueprint-for-a-Cyclical-Shock-Insurance-in-theeuro-area html (2012a) ‘Fifth Parent-Thirion G Vermeylen Houten Lyly-Yrjänäinen Biletta Cabrita Publications Office eurofound eu/pubdocs/2011/82/en/1/EF1182EN 76 ‘Sustainable workforce’ Vendramin Valenduc Molinié Volkoff Ajzen Léonard Luxembourghttp://www eu/pubdocs/2012/66/en/1/EF1266EN (2012c) ‘Trends Green Mostafa eu/pubdocs/2012/28/en/1/EF1228EN work–life perspective’ Anxo Franz Kümmerling Dublin eu/pubdocs/2012/73/en/1/EF1273EN ‘Health wellbeing Ardito d’Errico Leombruni Pacelli eu/pubdocs/2013/02/en/1/EF1302EN COM(2013) 83 ‘Policy Implementation package’ eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=11150&langId=en COM (2013)690 (2013d) ‘Towards Deep 165 03 (2013f) inferences culture p eu/education/policy/strategic-framework/doc/pisa2012_en (PIAAC): Implications October eu/education/policy/strategic-framework/doc/piaac_en (2013h) DirectorateGeneral Culture Luxembourg: 496p https://mail businessoutlook belgacom be/OWA/redir aspx?C=5ef56a3039354f999a8696f31a0 7eea6&URL=http%3a%2f%2fec eu%2fsocial%2fBlobServlet%3fdocId%3d11365%26la ngId%3den 77 ‘Standard 79’ spring eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb79/eb79_first_en Guide Dialogue’ blueprint Launching Debate’ (2012)777 final/2 2012’ (2012d) geographic press release http://europa eu/rapid/press-release_IP-12- 960_en htm?locale=en Education: Investing outcomes’ 669 do?uri=COM:2012:0669:FIN:EN:PDF ‘Impact Fund’ (‘general regulation’) Inclusion- policy) 19/20 DECEMBER Conclusions’ EUCO 217/13 13/14 205/12 Herman 120/12 collaboration 25/26 7/10 Presidency crisis’ 2012/2003(INI) Services: Play Steps 2012/2144(INI) A7-0273/2013 ‘Legal EMU’ 78 ‘Macro-economic qren pt/np4/np4/?newsId=3016&fileName=file875 how?’ 98 eu/media/socialdimensionsforeumfernandesmaslauskaitenejdisept2013 pdf?pdf=ok Deepening Model? 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Ideas Natali ‘Future Prospects Vademecum (Brussels: ETUI/OSE 245–63 NESSE regions’ authored nesse fr/nesse/activities/reports/activities/reports/mind-the-gap-1 Dialogue: Prospects’ Final etuc org/IMG/pdf/Dialogue_social_2010_Rapport_OSE_CES_EN Aspects Experts (summary) in: (74) 99-123 Peña-Casas Ghailani Nicaise Vers revenu européen rapport l’Observatoire (OSE) Comité Économique Européen Bruxelles Pisani-Ferry ‘Bribery Times ft com/intl/cms/s/0/6e3f7458-6faf-11e2-956b- 00144feab49a html#axzz2qNwS59cm Le croisée chemins Reflets vie 2003/4 Tome XLII 45-58 cairn info/revue-reflets-et-perspectives-de-la-vie-economique-2003-4-page- htm Efficacy Experimentation’ 281-306 area?’ 104 eu/011-17405-Which-financial-instrument-to-facilitatestructural-reforms-in-the-euro-area Schulten Schäfer Bispinck Rieger Ringger Baumann Husson ‘Theses Düsseldorf Zurich Paris boeckler de/pdf/wsi_2005_thesen_mindlohn_en cohesion: 2013’ eu/social/BlobServlet?docId=10976&langId=en -H intergouvernemental créé conférence Messine Rapport chefs délégation aux Ministres Affaires étrangères (The Market) unizar es/euroconstitucion/library/historic%20documents/Rome/preparation/Sp aak%20report%20fr Body Austerity Kills’ York Basic Books ‘Macroeconomic Added Unnecessary Burden? 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Europeanisation Dutch Published online 02 Policies: Belgium (still) Best Pupil Class?’ 82 ‘Under radar? austerity’ 91- be/files/bilan2012/Vanhercke_2013_Bil_soc2012_EU_SocPOl_Austerity_EN ‘The 2020’ Oxymoron? 141-174 org/Publications2/Books/Social-developments-in-the-European-Union-2010 Vaubel ’The labor Organisations 435-465 Verpoorten Activation Europeanization Mechanisms 21(1): 1–18 http://esp sagepub com/content/21/1 toc ‘How work: lessons mainstreaming’ Lörcher Schömann (Eds) Hart Publishing 105-122 Anatomy Modes’ 69-106 ‘Introduction Co-ordination Question’ Magnusson Strategies -Peter Lang 19-33 (% 20-64) 2008-12 -1 excl DE -3 -0 -7 -4 -8 -11 -9 -2 -6 Slovenia Source: Force 84 After almost universal quarterly (indeed earlier) 15-64) 2004-08 -5 -12 85 reaching 9% 15-24) -10 -22 -13 86 exaggerate full-time Relating meaningful dramatically 15-24who entirely NEETs) 87 constant 2004-1012 (Annual change) 2008-10 2010-12 2004-12 renewed 88 Change na Note: DK LU RO 2010-11; 2004-11 89 Proportion 2003-2011 population) 2007-11 IE AT EU-SILC (those disposable median) (there increased) emphasizing 90 2005-2012 total) 2005-08 EU27 -16 -14 Na -21 -29 -18 BG relates 2006 non-affordability indicative EUSILC 91 (Note s extreme included varies tie-periods 92 deflated deflator accounts 93 gross -15 -41 -31 -20 -25 -66 -24 -60 -35 -59 -19 -46 -33 t 94 2004-2011 2010-2011 -28 -23 95 96 -17 -39 110 15-64 EU2 NonEU27 BE EL ES FR IT CY NL PT FI SE column country; 2004; non-EU27 LFS 2004-02008 Total Men Upper Women Tertiary 99 (15-64) 2007-2012 %-point 2007-10 2010-11 2011-12 2007-12 Same Non-EU GR database calculations review) 100 Coefficient variation 2001- Luxembourg70 shortly after) 101 102 appendix examine demonstrate value-added underlies 2000-2012 2000-12 US Japan 25% 103 Exports ex 107 181 170 177 ordered r specialization globalization closer Consequently expected stand Fourthly 105 Shares 2000-2011 Percentage 2000-08 2008-11 2000-11 Canada Korea China Russia Brazil Mexico India pharmaceuticals 106 (Cont f manufactures columns 2000- imports equipment medium-to-high-tech tends 12-year unchanged dominates accounting whereas manufacturing unit greatly extra-EU manufactured (much 108 compile EFTA share; thirdly UK; fourthly fallen; fifthly falling goods; sixthly listed Rep Balance 109 ADRESS PHONE FAX EMAIL Rue Science B-1000 +32 893 info@friendsofeurope org www friendsofeurope • facebook com/friendsofeurope foe twitter