Poverty and child deprivation in Belgium

Download fulltext

Poverty and child deprivation in Belgium A comparison of risk factors the three Regions neighbouring countries TITLE : a Cette publication existe aussi en français sous le titre: La pauvreté et la déprivation des enfants Belgique: comparaison facteurs de risque dans les trois régions pays voisins Deze publicatie bestaat het Nederlands onder titel: Armoede deprivatie bij Belgische kinderen: een vergelijking van risicofactoren drie gewesten buurlanden from King Baudouin Foundation Rue Brederode 21 1000 Bruxelles AUTHOR(S) Anne-Catherine Guio (LISER – Luxembourg Institute Socio-Economic Research) Frank Vandenbroucke (Amsterdam University) With support EU-SILC Analysis network (Net-SILC3) COORDINATION FOR THE KING BAUDOUIN FOUNDATION Françoise Pissart Director Anne-Françoise Genel Senior Project Coordinator Saida Sakali Nathalie Troupée Knowledge Manager Ann Vasseur Programme Management GRAPHIC DESIGN Salutpublic LAYOUT Trinôme PRINT ON DEMAND Manufast-ABP asbl sheltered workshop This can be downloaded free charge our website www kbs-frb printed version this electronic ordered (free charge) on LEGAL DEPOSIT D/2893/2018/39 ORDER NUMBER 3618 March 2019 Belgian National Lottery TABLE OF CONTENTS Colophon 4 Foreword 7 Summary 9 1. Introduction 13 2. General overview regions compared to EU 14 3. Drivers 3.1. Theoretical framework 3.2. Empirical results 26 4. Modelling 27 5. Further reflections policy recommendations 33 References 45 Appendix 1: list country abbreviations 49 Is anyone still unaware alarming figures poverty today? For almost decade they have been brought attention policy-makers general public hammering home same (poverty risks 40% 25% 15% respectively Brussels Wallonia Flanders) with weakening collective indignation even creating political resignation Do we need reminded that stakes are high? must obvious as issue concerns not only children but future entire society The precarious living conditions these prevent them developing harmoniously such bad start life has long-term impact In other words if improve children’s their development young age refute fatalistic statistical prediction whereby poor every chance becoming adult is reason why stresses for an ambitious regarding families Resignation option We constantly look ways mobilising relevant actors Taking fresh at statistics one way motivated publish research thank authors report Professor (from University Amsterdam) (at LISER-Luxembourg NET-SILC3 analysed explaining across European addition focused differences between its well Flanders They proposed additional view disseminate it widely possible indicators did yield more encouraging picture than percentages mentioned above nevertheless hope analysis will prove motivating take action two reasons Firstly shifts rather abstract notion “threshold poverty” close examination reality lives Secondly themselves contain seeds because directly point levers Studying reveals shameful shortcomings instance many 33% deprived holidays 19 8% regular leisure activities 15 7% new clothes 10% books Internet level comparable Croatia Malta Poland United Kingdom whilst where among lowest Europe 41% (quasi-)jobless households considered being researchers wish limit contribution data also submitted containing which integrated nuances complementary ideas suggested by members committee composed experts working field These appear last part show no individual actor single authority succeed alone situation significantly improved through combination tax benefit policies measures domains childcare education extracurricular housing training employment large array fields competences come together requires vision supported all levels government well-coordinated local If want real investment fight against aware problem see less consequence choice result social processes specific mechanisms exclusion long run highly beneficial underprivileged whole would like express thanks remarkable scientific work input present laid down people below opinions suggestions • Séverine Acerbis Badje Antoine Borighem ONE – Direction Études Stratégies De Bleeckere Vlaamse Overheid Departement Onderwijs Vorming Strategische Beleidsondersteuning Valérie Desomer Fédération CPAS wallons Union Villes Communes Wallonie organisationnelle opérationnelle politique David Vaal Netwerk tegen armoede François Ghesquière Recherche Évaluation IWEPS Anne Giacomelli l’Enseignement Supérieur Catholique FédESuC Kathy Jacobs Kind & Gezin Afdeling Preventieve Gezinsondersteuning Janssen Réseau wallon lutte contre Fanny Laurent Le Forum-Bruxelles inégalités Sarah Luyten Observatorium voor Gezondheid Welzijn Brussel-Hoofdstad Christiane Malcorps Solvay Isabelle Martijn POD Maatschappelijke integratie Florence Pirard ULg Faculté Psychologie Sciences l’Éducation Département d’éducation formation Tinne Rommens rate monetary relative measure depends income each under review: those whose falls 60% median national used another indicator study “absolute” daily difficulties encountered based concept access ensemble 17 items necessary any today include whether: eats fruit vegetables day; invite friends play eat time time; participate school trips events; child’s adequately warm; leave least week’s holiday year; etc he/she greater number lacked severe agreed 2018 compare (nationally Regions) It shows roughly similar France However when higher threshold (i e larger items) assess difference neighbours widens Thus 12% four 9% Netherlands Germany share 2% average masks Regions: 29% 22% Within ranking top group Region occupies extreme position very high forms intermediate includes analyses principally associated household resources (disposable debt ) needs (housing healthcare costs composition (for single-parent family influences both costs) variables differs considerably richer linked needs/costs greatest generally most disadvantaged There therefore just socio-economic populations proportion without employment: variable absence job different account taken (e g income) wealth continues means vulnerable groups presenting characteristics better protected wealthiest poorest nation’s interpreted approximation certain measured model in-kind quality financial accessibility health transport exert either or face similarities Household major determinant exerts euro offers protection increases (almost) rented accommodation heavily indebted suffering chronic problems Deprivation influenced parents’ training; particularly case doubt overall unemployment skilled comparatively frequent periods Compared characterised explained factors: hand especially attribute fact minimum benefits (such assistance) do lift beneficiaries cannot ignored (41%) despite much lower conclusions emphasise fewer provide proven examples remind us ratified Nations Convention Rights Child implies unambiguous responsibility rights should beginning next legislature motivate federal regional community governments establish “master plans” important role plans cover wide range areas: Employment: reduce wage increase net low-skilled workers investing economy Living standards: upgrading replacement incomes so constitute adequate stronger targeted context reform (which now competence Housing: increasing provision providing increased agencies ensure coaching) extension renters Early childhood: affordable rules priority Public services: services (health culture sports…) accessible everyone Education: creation so-called “broad” schools embedded capable tackling partners regard to: nutrition (by healthy meals) educational organising pupils) schooling limiting materials activities) All networking proactive outreaching approach Local plays critical respect merits support: reaching out efficacy existing INTRODUCTION paper determinants using child-specific adopted draws econometric Marlier Verbunt (2018) who micro macro drivers 31 1 Our aim understand within organised follows Section 2 defines provides illustrative 3 reviews macro- micro-determinants highlighted al presents 5 concludes discusses some Research Luxembourg) Amsterdam (Netherlands) builds largely written third Network funded Eurostat solely E-mail address correspondence: anne-catherine guio@liser lu GENERAL OVERVIEW CHILD DEPRIVATION IN BELGIUM AND BELGIAN REGIONS COMPARED TO COUNTRIES best accurate information actual making assumptions about sharing develop i may differ parents Such was collected 2009 2014 Survey Income Conditions (EU-SILC) were aged years respondent (not themselves) According survey protocol given does item then assumed belonging lack keep mind private surveyed institutions homeless squats adults irregular situations) included final (2017) measurement consists following material aspects deprivation: Child: second-hand) pairs properly fitting shoes meat chicken fish vegetarian equivalent suitable 6. outdoor equipment 7. indoor games 8. 9. celebrations special occasions 10. invitation 11. participation events 12. 13. Household: worn-out furniture 14. arrears 15. Adults household: 16. warm 17. car use Lacking sign lacking incidence presented Table EU-28 ‘heat map’ highlights showing consistently several (in orange/red) Bulgaria Romania contrary low (Nordic Austria green) there mixed depending displaying relatively score others At bottom table contrasted (see cautionary note below) placed five performers performances Czech Republic Portugal UK Greece Baltic Republics Slovakia Serbia One set EU: comparing highlight absolute entities contrast usually applied monitor “Heat map” shares (% population 1-15 covered 2014) Sweden Finland Iceland Denmark Switzerland Slovenia Spain Cyprus Italy Ireland kingdom Estonia Lithuania Latvia Hungary Source: Authors’ computation basis cross-sectional far percentage item; extent cumulate deprivations Figure distribution (aged 15) according (Panel A) (the Panel B) (BR) 50% (three define deprivation) extremely (WA) attain 43% 14%; (VL) lower: 23% 4% B Indeed 3+ (13%) (11%) (8%) gap focus deprivation): example although (2%) reaches 7-9% Distribution % years) A: 60 54 ■ W VL BR BE 50 43 40 30 29 28 23 20 12 25 22 16 10 8 6 0 à H 1+ 2+ 4+ 5+ 6+ 7+ 8+ 9+ 11+ 12+ 13+ 14+ 15+ 16+ B: Neighbouring 35 l+ authors’ NB: How explain neighbours? charts investigate relationship (a short cut signals (quasi-)joblessness Then go step further examine compares defined equivalised Since varies (defined above) ‘very intensity’; 18-59 excluding students) effectively during 20% could theoretically year review intensity above: that: positioned performing Nordic (except measure) joblessness Hungarian (disposable) calculated steps: a) mon- etary received source member itself added up (these capital cash inter-household transfers) taxes contributions paid deducted sum; b) order reflect household’s size total (net) divided “equivalent adults” OECD-modified scale gives weight (1 first second subsequent person over 14); c) finally resulting figure disposable attrib- uted equally (adults children) Its suffers highest 2: Percentage (out 17) suffer Member States non-EU Appendix1 inclusion 3: live 4: (average aggregated heterogeneity situations league Countries rates terms illustrates potential diversity institutional pursued (child) household’s/parents’ significant DRIVERS section summarises main findings (2018); analyse models From theoretical identified sets likelihood and/or intensity: longer-term command resources; costs; relationships types Diagram well-being how consume turn “command resources” Although current proxy available element determined previous ability borrow difficult collect labour market migration background expect correlated easier overcome liquidity constraints younger return human Finally since highly-educated often offspring conjecture bequests contribute Ceteris paribus correlates inherited Similarly likely indicate predictor hamper due imply erosion savings eventually building Social transfers components already definition type design degree pro-poorness adequacy influence argue costs: equal Needs notably depend status tenure explanatory (size household) probability (quasi-) faced parent economically (because possibilities pooling adult) Single reconciling opt part-time inactivity needs/ perspective fixed represent Furthermore necessarily lead Individuals’ preferences into people’s consumption (one shaped cultural ways: interactions activity Health Determinants When able insufficient availability green dataset Important true family/friends direct Household’s “proxied” spending kind Only amount unknown) red Those black results: difficulty measuring (and possibly variables) self- surveys might easy reliable feeling shame admit essential adaptative (people period expectations declare afford) Some empirical 3.2 Verbunt’s powerful predictors majority are: cost burden Their household-level strongly richest related largest whereas deprivation-risk later helps once personal affluence (GDP) matters deserves investigation holds (results published demand) GDP country/region reduces micro-drivers controlled expected priori seems “hidden” contextual between-households affordability systems national/regional proxies “level development” societies negatively conclusion Once power limited except unsurprising used; mean unimportant simply MODELLING compositional element: exceptional jobless (1) countries; (2) simple bivariate indicates non-(quasi-)jobless (we data) To methodology developed summarised 3) specifications robust simplest (all (negative binomial) (ranging function few understanding characteristic suffered “other things equal”) factor joblessness) reference (quasi-)joblessness) grouped sample too small regressed separately) entity column coefficient test whether zero confirm “longer-term “household needs” particular coefficients (last column) An protects Wallonia/Brussels People reached upper negative (although hypothesis examination) well-educated volatility longer spells accumulate erode self-employed member(s) tend As partly correctly challenge distinguishing professional assets constitutes per se rely Debt Tenants home-owners Non-EU migrants native protective Results binomial Coefficient WA/BR WA/BR? VL? significant? -0 0705 yes 1235 (Quasi-)Jobless (reference: (quasi-)jobless) 3043 2654 Primary secondary education) 8051 2932 Upper 6253 07596 Self-employed employed 3592 -1 4786 (ref: 1592 3716 Heavy overburden burden) 2473 3875 Slight 4919 8007 Number 0226 0539 migrant migrant) 0084 1303 Tenant owners rent-free) 8026 5604 3491 9858 Bad 3921 1814 bold (p<0 1) Reading note: Children occurrence region foregoing informs at-risk overrepresented 5: Jobless Self severity: combined (Figure 5) (as shown regression 2) Among 54% WA/BR) make papers co- authored Julie Vinck 2015; F J A-C mainly confirmed negligible discussed (5+ stand- ard (3+ (< standard Variable 57% 64% Edu primary 5% 46% 32% 30% 36% 44% 38% 47% 37% 31% Housing heavy 53% 82% 76% 84% slight 35% 17% 14% 16% 26% 70% 78% 83% 45% 51% Migrant 39% rises 6: (lacking FURTHER REFLECTIONS POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS macroeconomic observable (observable characteristics) apparently parental affect differently Also ceteris countries/ affluent crucial (especially tenants) mitigate internal structure driver complacency Flanders: evidence gathered steadily non-material new-born showed worrisome result: severity (GDP capita target favourable macro-economic conditions: kind) though distributed universally (62% population) represents salary prosperity Both most: quarters segment 66% underestimates low-income played system Macroeconomic 2014-5 Country (1000 PPS) Median PPS child) Total head) Cash In-kind Family GDP) Average gross Pro-poorness (bottom Adequacy inco- me 00 63 70 92 71 38 08 1493 89 34 18 44 69 75 66 09 1450 76 32 82 73 1388 68 74 24 53 62 52 1597 36 90 07 1421 Note: help deciles pre-tax-and-transfer Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) convert amounts expressed currency artificial common equalises purchasing currencies price including currency) OECD Dutch proves grant households’ (Vandenbroucke 2017) coincidence activation agenda Activation assistance decidedly decentralized experience ‘copied’ hold lessons decision makers capacity policy-making municipalities strong recent decades 2015 devolved (Flanders Brussels) marking process growing portion facto decentralization stealth importance non-employed persons “leefloon” “revenu d’intégration”) managed towns communes Unfortunately debate landscape successfully nor communes’ reinforced networks (De Wilde 2016) say attempt coordinate polices Inter-federal Plan 2014-2015) encouraged financially Flemish moment however follow-up initiatives unclear us) weaknesses governance (or untapped potential) add persisting structural notwithstanding successive boost writing Labour Force Statistics (LFS) 2017 state LFS 4) Simultaneously simulations ‘household types’ structurally mediocre Consider unemployed: traditionally ‘net support’ Hence effective lasting effect tackle root causes integration (2019) master plan thorough evidence- non-dogmatic evaluation addressed plan: simultaneously prospects children? solutions lie crossroads relating require changes ‘hard’ implemented effectiveness enhanced coordinated serve overarching objectives reach multidimensional efficient organized authorities refer worries Senate Report provided tem- porary funding continued transferred invested scheme Gemeentefonds fund supporting mu- nicipal budgets); know monitored (Belgian 2015-2016 p 89) ‘jobless ‘(quasi-)jobless SILC See Cantillon Marchal Luigjes Admittedly shift benefits; MIPI database 2013 sports original; tangible efforts needed feature acts series mobility …) thus childhood confronted ever-growing diverse remain spearheads sufficient learn other: exchanges practical evaluate strengthen remainder briefly elaborate pretending exhaust subject questions parents? a. tailor-made scope improvement schemes opportunities low- employers earned matter middle-income earners budgetary compensated micro-simulations suggest positive individuals; moreover signal (future) full compensation hurt retired avoid regressive effects closing individuals objective affecting goes saying mobilisation what ac- tors subsidised sectors Employers HR supports experienced insecure completed map enable precisely orientation made beyond company’s contributes sustainable observation illustrated Recommendations drawn Walloon Fight elections Capéau b. currently motto “the market” accommodate naive invest jobs (subsidised neighbourhood question budgets (The prolong ‘Articles 60-61’ became remains c. Universal care facilitate parents: sufficiently flexible regulatory permit waiting lists reduced (Additional perspectives earn latter upgraded regularly; (leefloon/revenu d’intégration) invalidity emphasis moral hazard realm insurance led encompassing evolution Concern diminish energy water Working full-time preclude hours dependants put pressure underscored (2015-2016) reformed characterized universal flat complemented supplements reforms neutral (when grants account) 11 seen towards universalism traps (where dynamic administrative improvements enhance take-up) crucially confronting d. sections What urgent tenants sector housing? Substantial increasingly rental reader Senate’s states “Social (SVK/AIS) country” (Senate p. 130) Regional instruments encourage landlords property SVK/AIS supply guarantee coaching On “housing pressing strict Here child” eligible removing obstacles exercising domain Van Lancker (2016) Decoster Vanheukelom Dewilde Pannecoucke association substantially preventing ensuring various right respected safety protect potentially ? key preventative remedial influencing equality opportunity outcome capabilities Childcare good location geographical coverage neighbourhoods flexibility opening sake Data uptake under-representation immigrants non-financial (cultural linguistic operational barriers Rules exist French-speaking Community foreseen introduced bill rightly remarks bound Physical criteria stressed Proposals Quality Framework Childhood Education Care insists embrace collaborative promoting early involving organisations staff trained value assure beliefs cultures Pavolini E Schepers (2013) (Crépin Neuberg 2013); http://ec europa eu/assets/eac/education/policy/strategic-framework/archive/documents/ecec-quality- framework_en pdf transition pre-primary involvement stage recognized own Preventative pre- transitions (family certainly well-embedded communities Ensuring facilities fighting access; harmful here become ‘broad schools’ offering roots community? Everyone agree breaking vicious circle mobility) short-term consequences mother left qualifications youngsters leaving inequalities pervasive performance impede upward waves PISA sadly show; space precludes elaborating raises pedagogical organizational issues gradient having postpone treatment cost; https://ec eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index php?title=Unmet_health_care_needs_statistics Baye (2016); Witte Hindriks publications trends Franck Nicaise term basic Wallonia-Brussels Federation interaction welfare one-size-fits-all Nevertheless precondition successful multifaceted (‘brede scholen’ coined partnerships Up movement had traction caution ‘one-size-fits-all’ exhaustive think tackled schools: Nutritional enjoy complete meal day raised idea meals discarded easily: serious compulsory irrespective interesting observe justifies “Finland pupils nursery guaranteed legislation dating 1948 Free preserve learning pedagogic tool teaching manners food eating habits cereals skimmed low-fat milk ” Experiments seeing light 78 (differentiated schools) academic call projects project extended targeting propose comprehensive ‘a foundation children’ origin http://www edu fi/yleissivistava_koulutus/hyvinvointi_koulussa/kouluruokailu/kouluruokailun_historiaa ideal external organisms Thanks teacher independent family’s Teacher appropriate competencies onwards) backgrounds: approaching manner reducing mastering language setting challenges establishing confidence familiar Today prepared demands required Not skills privatisation duality afford reinforce achievement targets applies technical consideration prohibitive exclusionary students “Maximum Bill” principle extra-curricular experiments expenses borne broadened Community-wide Pact Excellent announced progressively envisaged extend followed (firstly “educational” “non-educational” expenses) obviously intention provincial Antwerp Cultural Good premises Artistic sporting ideally obligatory school’ create broader environment around Children’s Houses (Huizen Kind) asset connect committed improving Huizen achieving implementing title Précarité Périnatalité Enfance (Deprivation Perinatality Childhood) 2015-2018 foresees places dialogue concern collaboration worlds Non-take proactively cooperation (cf brugfiguren ‘bridge persons’ deployed build bridges intensive consider subsidy outreach service delivery cornerstone “alliance formed regional/ shared relation KOALA partnership old/ acronym Ouder Activiteiten Lokale Armoedebestrijding (Local Parents Poverty) KOALAs enabled extra 500 UN clear implementation masterplan prime/first ministers route consecutive anti-poverty (focused poverty) Minister-President budget expansion ambitiously poverty/deprivation inter-federal (2014-2015) date masterplans success http://cohesionsociale wallonie be/actions/lutte-contre-la-pauvret%C3%A9 mi-is be/sites/default/files/documents/plan_national_lutte_pauvrete_infantile_0 Federal (http://www miis be/sites/default/files/documents/plan_federal_de_lutte_ contre_la_pauvrete_2016-2019_0 pdf) Vlaams Actieplan (https://armoede vlaanderen be/?q=vlaams-actieplan) (2015) Inégalités entre élèves structurelles Fédération- Wallonie-Bruxelles L’apport l’enquête Eduquer 2015/ (n°114) 10-12 (Belgische Senaat Informatieverslag betreffende noodzakelijke samenwerking tussen federale overheid Gemeenschappen Gewesten inzake gezamenlijke aanpak strijd kinderarmoede ons land; Sénat Belge Rapport d’information concernant nécessaire l’autorité fédérale Communautés Régions vue développer une approche commune infantile notre Zitting 2015-2016/ Session doc 6-162/3) S Chr Decent Incomes Poor: Which Role Europe? Journal Common Market Studies Volume 55 pp 240–256; DOI: 1111/jcms 12486 Maes T Betaalt taxshift zichzelf terug? Leuvense Economische Standpunten 2018/168 Crépin Vécu attentes défavorisés belges ou d’origine étrangère l’égard structures pour petite enfance parole donnée aux précarité financée par Fondation Roi Impactberekening kinderbijslaghervorming op armoederisico KU Leuven januari M Bie jaar OCMW bijstand Leuven; Acco Kr (eds) (her)vormende Itinera -C juvénile rédigé Parlement Gordon D Najera Pomati “Towards deprivation” https://doi org/10 1007/s12187-017-9491-6 P Micro- Paper Net-SILC3 International Conference Comparative Athens April Lahaye Vranken I Rossem R (eds yearbook Sociale InZichten ACCO Leuven/ Hague allowances Wallonia: distributive https://www researchgate net/publication/316828914_THE_NEW_SYSTEM_ OF_FAMILY_ALLOWANCES_IN_WALLONIA_IMPACT_ON_POVERTY_ AND_DISTRIBUTIVE_EFFECTS C ‘nieuwe sociale kwestie 0’: hoe wonen armer maakt in: Coene Raeymaeckers Hubeau Goedemé Remmen Haarlem Uitsluiting Jaarboek Iets gelijker maar helaas niet beter Koning Boudewijnstichting Barometer Energiearmoede (2009-2015) (3de editie) Monseur Les scolaires ethno-culturelle amplification Quels apports données l’analyse Paris Conseil d’évaluation du système scolaire Lafontaine Structure systèmes éducatifs équité un éclairage international Crahay (Ed L’école peut-elle être juste efficace (2e éd revue avec collaborateurs augmentée 145-173) Boeck parcours âgés d’un champs d’action santé soutien parentalité l’accueil SA Dedicated Matthew use: preferences? Policy 25(6):878-893 Pacolet Buffel V Segaert Vanormelingen Coninck Wispelaere Op Beeck L Progress Recommendation “Investing (ESPN) Profile Unia L’enseignement Belgique reste inégalitaire selon l’origine ethnique Brussel: Hoog tijd om aan alarmbel te trekken Sampol: Samenleving politiek (December) 4-11 België Nederland: kleine welvaartsstaten Europa Vierendertigste Pacificatielezing Breda November 13140/ RG 14550 34888 armoede- verdelingsimpact nieuwe kinderbijslag: akkoord Regering mei 2016 CSB NL BG AT CZ PL DK PT DE RO EE SI IE SK EL FI ES SE FR IT CY Other (non-EU) LV IS LT RS LU CH HU MT Brederodestraat B-1000 info@kbs-frb +32-2-500 Donations euros give rise reduction actually IBAN: BE10 0000 0404 BIC: BPOTBEB1 Foundation’s mission change innovation serving interest cohesion seek maximize strengthening organizations stimulate philanthropy corporations values integrity transparency pluralism independence solidarity areas justice civic engagement talents democracy heritage 1976 occasion 25th anniversary Baudouin’s reign donors valued Subscribe e-news Follow PUB N°3617