Real Equality of Opportunity in Work and Education in the Immigration Society: the Challenge of a Decathlon

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Frank Vandenbroucke obtained an M Phil in Economics at Cambridge (1981-1982) and a PhD Social Studies Oxford (1996-1999) Between these periods of study he was chairman the Socialist Party from 1989 until 1994 when became deputy Prime Minister minister Foreign Affairs From 1999 to 2003 Pensions 2003-2004 Employment federal government 2004 2009 Education Training Flemish He is now member parliament Dirk Malfait works Vandenbroucke’s political team advising on employment Email: frank vandenbroucke@vlaamsparlement be JAARBOEK3_binnenpag indd 72 5/25/2012 9:49:22 AM & Work Immigration Society 73 For number years has invested policies improve chances socio-economic success for ‘allochtonen’ ‘Allochtonen’ denomination used Flanders rather loosely defined category; purpose this paper we can best delineate it as non-European migrants first second generation Although precondition social integration does not answer question what really means or whether society cope with cultural diversity associated immigration The issues which raises are addressed 1 What then needed success? In place access decent work generating income well self-respect respect others young people migrant community generally upward mobility: they have do better than their parents To make mobility accessible everyone there must close cooperation between all actors responsible education were brought under single policy umbrella i e responsibility one deliberate move put real equality opportunity higher agenda that disadvantaged position matter particular concern both knowledge plays crucial role because determines people’s ladder dynamics lead great inequality emancipation too since group result nexus vicious circles labour market whereby deficits qualifications skills existing prejudices reinforce each other These broken through simultaneously different places effectively requires collaboration those involved Real Equality Opportunity Society: Challenge Decathlon Member former Advisor 74 five disadvantages high although no illusion could any quick wins change needs perseverance patience Any improvements early childhood today will only affect educational 12 years’ time earliest Because choices take effect long term sure sufficiently ambitious wish pose made right A ‘both-and’ account excludes simplistic explanations school leavers who registered Public Vocational Service (VDAB) reveal 44 7% still looking year after registration while figure non-migrant 19 5% 2 explain difference? simple exercise shows less orientation relative lack combination inhibiting factors – black box doubt including reluctance recruit even outright discrimination percentage seeking would drop 35% if chose same subjects achieved grades non-migrants remain unchanged This 7 27 differences left but removed If zoom more closely see determining level again complex our system compulsory clearly illustrated by maths results 15 olds 3 Community average mark mathematics OECD’s Programme International Student Assessment (PISA) test 543 points compared 500 OECD whole wide gap native pupils (pupils least parent born Belgium) 551 whose abroad averaged about 100 fewer There range common help difference: often come lower class speak Dutch home attend schools where many students backgrounds disproportionate them end up technical vocational That list already indicates actions taken Language critical general received proper ‘pathway guidance’ reduced further fact inappropriate courses secondary information fail use properly few models etc 4 Breaking disadvantage characterised objective subjective failure feed When graduate sense employers prejudiced opportunities being closed spite undeniably occurs lose motivation Lack contributes Educational leads turn confirms though without prejudice reduces 75 gives rise feeling ‘never’ want employ jobs simply exist Thus circle complete danger passing problem down future generations low status poorly educated constitute additional handicap children terms aimed break instances into causes achievement tackled countered positive examples stories designed undermine myth During past de facto significantly creating sometimes explicitly very implicitly We been sparing categorical measures targeted exclusive specific conditions activation job seekers (the so-called “comprehensive approach”) length unemployment intended add linguistic criteria However explicit distinction allocation funding teaching staff takes socioeconomic background language include ‘migrant’ parameter decision adopt implicit non-categorical approach based belief most important qualification also Belgians An exception principle relatively recent ‘inwerkingsbeleid’ ‘integration-via-work’ paths linked ‘inburgeringsbeleid’ civic It newcomers rights obligations main asked give disproportional attention vulnerable groups treating individual differently nationals Through ‘management contracts’ public services such VDAB Syntra (a training organisation) conventions various business sectors instance given unemployed building ‘positive action’ dealing On hand comes raising awareness stimulating As later gradually cautiously making transition incentive ‘soft law’ concerning proportional participation addition ‘hard equal enrolment outlaws convinced whenever detected should firmly reined last done debates deliberately tried avoid two pitfalls: always victims constantly blaming own Equal require culture personal aspiration support oneself mutual solidarity Opportunities step Marleen Vanderpoorten’s decree OpJAARBOEK3_binnenpag 76 portunities 2002 Primary provided extra weak augmented moreover At enrol choice procedures formalised new regime reflected liberal believe power well-informed consumers modified create room local consultation greater freedom play active part selecting under-privileged indeed privileged eye within walls Yet universal formal guarantee After dominant theme Higher called mobilise ‘second wave democratisation’ focusing untapped reservoirs talent particularly appeal become ‘Decathlon Education’ Focusing budget decathlon turned finance Henceforth four distribution operational schools: mother spoken family area pupil lived parameters substantial impact financing subsidies considerable sums money every tongue primary receives 188 29€ catholic 656 37€ meets none €1177 49 Increasing combined cost-limiting prevent some trying attract wealthier presenting ‘more expensive’ profile institutions rewarded contribute scholarship go successfully It’s just budgets counts happens classroom university Mediocre said So remaining tests revolve around quality One need resultoriented achieving Another had indications incomes mothers Belgian spoke another likely send infant target action Together child welfare regional nursing Kind Gezin [Child Family]) campaign conducted persuade sent so And September 2010 benefit before allowed Dutch-language contacts families poor 77 involve ‘declaration commitment’ consisting agreement covers things punctual attendance truancy implies commitment meetings teachers get coaching necessary (e g remedial supervised homework) encourage learn hard sanctions procedures: signal soft law Two ten battery developed order children’s (in large) clarify objectives spur develop coherent focus inspection issue competence challenge elsewhere standard popular media pushed out languages; outside usually either dialect mixture complicated Brussels surrounding heavily ‘frenchified’ short true immersion But however difficult may option raise command otherwise uncompromising learning accompanied negative attitude towards languages integrated pursuit multilingualism arguments multilingual immersed far answered how socio-cultural respects foreign Furthermore practice relativism thus watering requirement understand write good suffer seriously guidance subject continues wrestle challenges pointed genuinely embarked democratisation allow degenerate ‘everyone master’s bachelor’s degree’ why framework created reorganise upgrade post-secondary below bachelor rungs promising don’t ambition ability master Tailored activation: multi-staged model its intensification systematic Flanders: adopted contacted long-term required effort exchange offered Activation basis ‘multi-staged model’ providing rapid intense contact 78 form progressed aware differentiated example pilot project involving low-skilled thirteen cities municipalities suffered endemic youth did specifically happened consist largely Even generic among fell half during 2008 highly intensive firm extended economic slump interrupted style Not suprisingly times crisis Unemployment Maghreb Turkish rose steeply descent mentioned earlier committed 40% receive total might suggest Tackle newcomers’ deficiencies introduced 2006 virtually newcomer wants settle finding aspect citizenship entered ‘secondary path’ via appears successful offers functional evaluation yet known global over period 2003-2009 limited speakers following course fairly Those follow locked communities seldom ever therefore practised ‘Competences Agenda’ 2007 approved partners (employers unions) subsequently underwritten providers ‘Competences’ stand attitudes acquired Getting recognise previously competences spearhead way achieve issuing ‘Certificates Experience’ They widespread programme recognition certainly much expected regularisations illegal residents government’s Regularisation Accord implemented extending scope Certificates Experience government) validated shorter top-up Combating ‘diploma fetishism’ appear conflict emphasis obtaining Competences Agenda initiate broader process industry participants 79 possible self-development Elsewhere volume Fons Leroy (pp 89-91) argues tailored build possess peoples’ assumed characteristics Creating major Experiencing Since 1998 promoting practices encouraging face seen plans businesses organisations authorities financial incentives strategic personnel organisational full advantage potential available special progression retention operative 10% 10 employees representing 5 vigorous version Jobkanaal [Job Channel] run employers’ set channel vacancies aim 5000 placements jobseekers (migrants over-50s handicaps) Job Channel sensitive methods permit employer vacancy exclusively reserved applicants prosperity 687 placed whom 58% data show sharp fall obviously legislative barriers limitations Certificate taking selection positions (diploma requirements) Coalition Agreement agreed management agreements annual leading civil servants encouragement voluntary pioneers guideline world ‘sector covenants’ current proposing quantified sector targets subjecting relevant sectors’ initiatives (such training) ‘diversity test’ slowly surely bedding Eventually pressure’ ‘good examples’ company cascade shop floor norm albeit context covenants systematically strong clauses judged observance routes With view unions themselves next three members discuss councils proposed receipt contracts 80 Punishing levels legal existed rein (on grounds nationality race skin colour ethnic origins ) impose effective Recently agencies obliged threat losing licenses companies found guilty industrial tribunal essential sound anti-discrimination legislation heard complaints dealt office report employment-related centres Results Can yet? case meaningful embedded argument applies assessment straightforward faring depends definition ‘migrants’ reducing Moreover interpretation statistical problems structural improvement rate non-EU Their increased becoming smaller limit laid Vilvoorde Pact (an increase 2000 work) 400 citizens figures workers origin EU Belgium naturalisation easier foreigners makes partial developments indicate successes Summarised briefly slightly favourably (which growing population unemployed) Economic played this: employed temporary hardest hit recession Challenges writes his contribution provides curative remedies efficient preventive offer backwardness disgrace saying 9:49:23 81 jury meantime equivalent four-wheel drive exceptional engine relationship spheres back separate ministerial hands lost consolidated continue invest broad giving rises “war talent” seems ground Secondly competence-oriented everywhere urgent bearing mind numbers regularised wider challenge: concrete instruments ‘categorical’ consultants perhaps inclined category overlook Thirdly expanded applying enterprises Fourthly attached experienced imposed demographic dynamic related compel investments Particularly bigger baby boom dynamism foresight ‘More same’ suffice watch gamut ensure actually classrooms described Four fore Firstly strengthening staffing synergy improved care zero tolerance cleared bar posed forcefully goals possibilities Wednesday afternoons reform justice talents technological practical theoretical complemented rung multi-track powerful driving shared stakeholders: trade itself Perhaps share involved? touches dimensions unable consider fundamental question: dream society? 82 Endnotes 1/ shall enter debate wearing hijab head scarf explored (Jan Zutter pp 86-88) 2/ accumulated successive studies carried 3/ Jacobs D (2009) De sociale lift blijft steken prestaties van allochtone leerlingen Vlaamse Gemeenschap en Franse Brussel Koning Boudewijnstichting 4/ Allochtonen het hoger onderwijs Factoren studiekeuze studiesucces bij eerstejaarsstudenten KULeuven VUB March 5/ Department Nota Evaluatie Impulsbeleid EAD