Solidarity through redistribution and insurance of incomes: the EU as Support, Guide, Guarantor or Provider?

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The Amsterdam Centre for European Studies SSRN Research Paper 2020/01 Solidarity through redistribution and insurance of incomes: the EU as Support Guide Guarantor or Provider? Frank Vandenbroucke 1 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4 0 International License © 2020 University f i g vandenbroucke@uva nl www aces uva 2 Abstract Income are core functions welfare states What role should play in this domain? I examine purchase normative theorizing on social justice question building contrast between three models involvement: which implies sharing resources intergovernmental transfers; Provider cross-border transfers towards individual citizens; that formulates policy ideals review different accounts (Ronzoni Viehoff Sangiovanni Van Parijs) how they bear choice these involvement state solidarity These evolve two extreme positions On one hand an account based supranational ‘background nation states’ be mere instrument hands its member opposite position laboratory international distributive whereby national demoted to toolbox instruments argue must search middle ground neither nor conclude support some their key basis common standards pursuit upward convergence Such ‘Social Union’ would both realm Through establishment interstate it true ‘insurance union’ but from point view citizens not become direct It engage interpersonal Keywords: Union Social Europe basic income global 3 Introduction incomes rich poor case unemployment retirement illness longstanding Nation cherish sovereignty sensitive areas However coordination security entitlements mobile legal enforcement principles non-discrimination (EU) plays domain far trivial Since launching Open Method Coordination (OMC) inclusion also committed offering cognitive guidance fight against poverty already residual provider assistance albeit very marginal way via Fund Aid Most Deprived Is there arguments goes beyond acquis? In ongoing debates EU’s dimension array proposals effect A Directive minimum protection force all improve situation own country well-known proposal go existing model soft guidance: thereby shift being guarantor domestic Some scholars organize transnational thus itself redistribution: pan-European established For yet other participants first priority development European-wide risk instance by means Eurozone-level re-insurance schemes providing budgetary systems when need such scenario might principle limited background nevertheless involves material organization at level genuine benefit scheme has been proposed becomes M Daly dynamics Policy in: P Kennett N Lendvai-Bainton (eds ) Handbook Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing pp 93-107 J Greiss B Cantillon T Penne S Marchal agent fills gaps ? FEAD WP19/03 Herman Deleeck 2019 See reports produced Minimum Network (www emin-eu net) references earlier Anti-Poverty (EAPN); see Pillar Rights: ten prioritising 14 Ferrera (ed Towards Rights Roadmap fully-fledged Forum debate Torino Centro Einaudi euvisions eu) 54-63 Parijs Y Vanderborght Basic Radical Proposal Free Society Sane Economy Cambridge Mass : Harvard Press 2017 5 Finally emphasize curtail tax competition since undermines capacity governments maintain fair adequate funding states: what shared regulatory 6 short survey suffices illustrate roles with regard solidarity: can act guide provider…7 paper focus across borders organized EU; policies and/or (in policy-makers acts Guide; more binding speaking directly Guarantor) will elaborate exact definition ‘guarantees’ distinction – continuum possible however important discussions about 8 F promise delivery op cit 2-11; new Commission convince alive kicking 169-176 W Schelkle ahead Union? Let’s political citizenship taxation 157-159 7 My typology inspired owes much Claassen Gerbrandy Princen Segers (see R Four Models Protecting Citizenship Europe: Conclusions Special Issue ‘Rethinking Market Economy’ Journal Common Vol 57 No 159-174 January 159-174) There differences First describe ‘support’ congenial et al coin ‘Patron-of-nations’ levels shape arrangements defined only creates conditions able bring choices into effect; does interfere those simply refers supportive preclude interference Second although cannot upon context necessary make ‘guide’ ‘guarantor’ rights ‘guide/guarantor’ encompasses questions: whether speak rather than another extent ‘guidance’ reinforced ‘harder’ guarantees imply (cf next footnote) Various World Bank assess Latin American countries lens ‘social guarantees’: guarantee’ framework demanding; justiciable recently started use expression ‘guarantee’ looser sense packages recommended Member States Youth Guarantee Child Guarantee) How concept applied needs careful thought scope thank Francesco Corti drawing my attention Guide/Guarantor mutually exclusive EU: quite contrary may complementary reinforce each views underpinning them truly conflicting Hence aim delineation Admittedly following sense: without taking geopolitical considerations explain historical purpose exploration contemporary mission lacks bound highly abstract exercise; even difficult clear conclusion Nevertheless indispensable consequential alternative prominent philosophical do converge prescriptions 9 Two receive particular paper: re- discussion highlights limits ‘functional arguments’: pondering we bridge functional (the monetary union fiscal stabilizers) aspirations (adequate aspiration states) Appealing requires (why valuable?) discuss extensively because often presented most plausible if (since least intrusive w r t tax- schemes) argument relatively non-intrusive merits compared approach upshot implausible project except convinced any time include various suggests e supports (selective) Thus Maximum just minimum: pluralist justification Political Theory 16 164-187 justice’ (a conception emphasizes secure ‘real sovereignty’) subsidiarity organizing ways implementing Sections define features call ‘welfare solidarity’ Section delineates argumentation strategy relevance theories notion starting returns questions set out introduction issues remain unanswered; envoi firm precise 1. Welfare combine They redistribute better-off members society faced deprivation subject higher risks enable insure themselves hardship spread securely over lifetime Next investment care capacitating services: develop nation’s human capital education training; regulate provide health care; address so-called ‘new risks’ insurable traditional logic difficulties combination paid family life having frail relative single program serves function Public compulsory counterfactual private immediate redistributive impact same holds child many services Traditional mix up reason mixing related asymmetric information profiles: profiles differ lead adverse selection makes suboptimal impossible pooling increase aggregate welfare; allow Pareto-improvement every wins 10 Risk people low subsidize high claim leads stronger enhances economic efficiency increases graphical exposition illustrating Barr Economics (5th ed New York: Oxford 2012 111-112 Whether (i) gain (ii) depends assumptions contracts offer environment (including among others heterogeneity preferences risks); Chetty Finkelstein Insurance: Connecting Data Elsevier 2013 111–193 literature cited therein risks; individuals lack less well-off addition benefits categories minima maxima apply sometimes cement More generally overall performance resilience public legitimacy crucially depend complementarities positive impacts perspective separated; formulate cautiously prima facie seems conceivable separate agenda design specifically separately (monetary) selective takes part really disentangle return wrapping umbrella qualifier differentiates broader notions compensating (disadvantageous) circumstances held responsible ‘responsibility-cut’ boundary collective responsibility) explicit implicit contract transpires praxis describing; responsibility-cut judgment fortiori metaphysical ‘truths’ responsibility Also citizens’ motivations (e self-interest feelings community moral obligation… issue words want supporting (iii) judgements 11 thin ‘solidarity’ narrow praxes exist outside redistribution; slightly Definitions refer foundational motives integral (claiming motivation stability) conflates aspects problematic kept apart Gerhards H Lengfeld Z Ignácz Kley Priem Times Crisis Insights Thirteen-Country Survey London: Routledge p 19-20) deliberately entertains generic description (which institutionalized non-voluntary; short-cut institutions) causes (or institutions embodying praxis) institution it) satisfies demands feature depending distinct types Insurance future Pure compensated foreseen reasonably calculated group identical practical terms expected net present value cashed pure mechanism equal contribution ex ante expectation sufficiently long span no ‘net beneficiaries’ contributors’ money terms; gains everybody form ‘circumstances’ hold characteristics prime example progressive Suppose agree qua partly result factors talents were born educated parents family’s network … Progressive organizes contract: it’s rationale compensate disadvantages linked 12 participating seen ‘demanding’ Well-organised understood matter enlightened large majority insured: end ideal-type wins) indicated above order implement world heterogeneous Complying then Or precise: ‘circumstance’ expediency write ‘key rationale’ component Think (unforeseeable) affecting workers’ associated shocks reduces sectors activity Consider self- employed working sectors: sector hit severely downturn whilst device Throughout practices interpreted One assessment reader easily recognizes vocabulary grammar strand egalitarian philosophy coined ‘responsibility-sensitive ‘equality opportunity’:13 so conceived objectives Obviously vehicle exactly mean specification: flexible; crucial ‘responsibility cut’ foundation where located Because flexibility conceptual provided responsibility-sensitive useful heuristic social-policy makers who constantly have consequences choice; accept obviously further specification caveat second reference think covers dimensions But essence here flexible additional advantage: normally relationships extended used applies regulation corporate pre-empt downward spiral setting diversify buttress solve action problem word fall heading ‘European general better concepts thick moreover 13 G Cohen Dworkin provides practice notably compassion vulnerability personal 2. Three preliminary observations Before exploring observation concerns aims Well-organized serve automatic stabilizers smooth business cycle 15 Stability avoiding too instability) justice: stability right well-being extrapolate level: condition flourishing Rather interpreting nations insurance) solution under-provision ‘good’ If valuable per se overzealous hazard worry insured parties completely ‘beyond control’ risk-sharing mechanisms location informed achieve diversity fascinating Monetary argues participate She claims accommodated (only exist) “diversity fostered eliminated” necessarily require ‘ever closing meaning ever integration centralized Schelkle’s conflate she calls ‘diversity’: aspect degree correlation versus homogeneity profile We empirical interests interest-based added high: presupposes correlated reasons why typically works population small ‘diversity’ ‘weak relates fact includes cf footnote correlation’ indeed beneficial say ‘more beneficial’ interest seek inequality ‘low risk’ ‘high low- high-risk people: low-risk consequence ceteris paribus cross- subsidization pooled: still (without undermine possibility insurance); well off calculus allows aggregating high- different: deem therefore circumstance (even correlated) made writes foster cross-subsidization pooled enhance concern populations: perceived contributing (i behaviour people) illegitimate cause accepted ‘behaviour’ limiting incidence called nothing irrational inclinations (as everything defence conceptions legitimate yes presuppose including employment pursue below unification consensus 17 abstracts aversion complicates advantages sharing; Both covered mitigated; USA Chr Luigjes Fischer (re)insurance scheme: lessons US experience ACES Working 2019/06 third Peter Baldwin’s seminal garnering 18 Notwithstanding (manageable) historically technique allowed create ‘communities cross-cutting class-cleavages generating stable constituencies provision safety communities build notes 19 Can ‘community techniques? respect underscore insurance: certain At 20 Why interesting our purpose? large-scale between-country difficult: separating feasible notwithstanding resistance permanent 21 potential did invites Baldwin Politics Cambridge: 1990 am grateful reminded me difference norms euro area reform conference ‘Is Unjust’ Firenze 16-17 September D Stone Beyond Moral Hazard: Opportunity Connecticut Law (1) 12-46 identifies number mechanisms: well-being; changes problems etcetera correlate severe diverse GDP profile: independent prosperity characteristically comes shocks) contributions payouts proportional countries’ theoretical avoid Carnot example) policy-making circles idea considered major stumbling block experiment attitudes viz-à-viz shows exercised absence presence) activation training attached Burgoon Kuhn Nicoli Sacchi van der Duin Hegewald Sharing When Unemployment Hits: Design Influences Citizen (EURS) AISSR Report 2018 us self-standing 22 consider ‘pure insurance’ tendency aside merely ‘enlightened self-interest’ proper underrates improves board respects worst fundamentally 3. now assumes? context: statement formulated independently market freedom movement technical anti-discrimination legislation processes launched last years developed sustain Semester had huge Should goods capital? integration? qualified non-discriminatory access move?23 raise postulated fixed proceed justifications That premised well- well-organized entity distributed fairly within possibly demanding fulfilled page authors X Ragot Civiliser le Capitalisme Crise du libéralisme européen retour politique Fayard 23 operational latter sub-question citizens: today? Rennuy trilemma law: seeing wood trees Review vol 56 1549-1590 opinions diverge aware assumption underlying (and their) Freedom raises complex taken redistributed domestically according standard emigration size composition non-mobile affected start premise abstracto fundamental Germans travel freely France French Germany dissociated desire history aggressive nationalism sparked terrible bloodshed was granted joined 2004 after: Central Eastern settlement peace openness enlarged embody Yet accommodating well-functioning evident (think mass younger age balance pay-as-you-go pension growing regional divides emigration) treat satisfactorily confines Starting premises learn redistribution? published 2009 Ronzoni 24 Applied ‘take back collectively domains lost control individually due internationalization Arguing strengthen ‘real’ politically expedient: appeals exercise significant segment electorate actors attractive promises Global Order: Case Background Injustice Philosophy & Affairs 37 229-256 basis: real inquiry Prima variants section contra justifying unconvincing let alone justify doing today (albeit one) embrace radically (of thinking justice) argues? Parijs’s ambiguous Sangiovanni’s searching believe land entertain doubts approaches sections explore limitations justice’; comment briefly revisit understanding wrap concludes 4. According “(1) territory (2) justice-relevant socio-economic (3) interact free equals ”25 With adds “states enough power internal socioeconomic effective reasonable external ”26 explicitly “in interested outcomes: equally affluent ”27 institutions: tackle measures 25 Ibidem 247 26 248 27 Reiterating terminology Would stop there? Eurozone rehearse deployed effect: fragility incomplete EMU stabilizers; externalities prisoners’ dilemma particularly salient union; language type ‘functional’: requirement Justice Implementing justice; bad functionalist observation: advances basically postulates integrated financial markets kind ‘private output centralize management banks Typically unions pool complete partial centralization insurance; stabilization fragile textbook De Grauwe: cycles display amplitudes countries; amplitude ‘sudden stops’ liquidity outflows hitting experiencing recession destabilizing whole system 28 Grauwe ideal given obstacles step remedy union’s contingent consideration: protect summary Integration 12th edition 140-141 vulnerable cater mainly well-to-do 29 Whilst certainly twist ‘fragility’ take down road link cashing triggered stabilizer: conditional quality 30 (quasi-)pure converted quasi- homogenous keep safely minimal Do ‘functional’ insurance? answer tentative ‘yes’ mutual justified Let externality: stabilisation demand contributes (via trade links) externality dispose As good insufficient sub-optimal promoted supported adaptable exchange rates: wage costs deviations cost competitiveness remedied rate caught Historically efforts federal administration 1930s state-based Kizior Mourre Fiscal Euro-Area: simulation CEB N° 17/025 October Hits specific requirements comply classic 31 To full chain vaccination archetypal subsidized authorities prevent under-consumption Applying ‘compulsory vaccination’ mandate ‘vaccination programme’) cluster principles: generous benefits; sufficient coverage rates schemes; labour segmentation leaves poorly unemployment; proliferation relations unemployed individuals; constitution buffers times stabilisers implementation instability concern: logically (imagine process principles) guidelines translated model: natural move Vaccination An either permanently shock instantiate subsidisation model) combined relevant understand barely probably off; Simonetta Intereconomics Economic 52(3) 142-148 before emergence theoretically sound 32 actual importance doubted: leakage partners generate ‘positive effect’ diminish inclination Grauwe’s While (it mostly symmetric similar amplitude) straightforwardly justifies Empirically compelling 33 lesson ‘needs’ cure entails disagreement never black-or-white judgments matter: “a finite consistent choices” puts it;34 Heidenreich rightly warns “functionalist fallacies” 35 ‘function well’ always somewhere links cross-country sake ‘Eurozone robust non-exploitability equitable Robust foreseeably likely engender exploitation creditors impose debtors foreseeable threaten satisfaction provisions Cf government intervention pedagogical underscores banking 34 economy Oxford: final chapter Rokkanian–Mephistophelian remark 87 “necessitates state’s regime meets adequacy” And “[w]here guaranteed mandatory ”36 describes his “background justice” sketched govern purposes lot sympathy Viehoff’s conclusion: commonly agreed throughout differently (differently me) intrinsic leading ‘effective sovereignty’ ‘the provisions’ Recall Ronzoni’s Without agreement ‘minimum parcel unclear sovereign enter sure Viehoffs entirely convincing done share aspiration: weakness ‘member visible asks indication yields deemed allowing provision’ substantively ‘sovereign criteria sovereignty-based content frame provisions’) 36 Number 403 395 note objective Moreover adequacy grain mentioned motivated foremost self-interest: builds happenstance indicate argument’ contribute conditioned unemployed) pace pragmatic approach: attitude research ‘reciprocal’ gather 38 broadly reciprocity 39 presumption concur Swift opinion informs inter alea feasibility tell endorse debate; think? In: Bell de-Shalit Forms Justice: Critical Perspectives David Miller’s Lanham: Rowman Littlefield relation Baderin Busen Schramme U Luke Miller Who cares Revisiting Contemporary 5. solidarity? referred to) organized: “versions liberal republican intergovernmentalism obtains whenever realise non-domination amongst themselves” justificatory introducing (next 40 intergovernmentalists unconditional universal “relatively structure concerned” 41 underpins pre-empting conditionality realistic respectful autonomy comprehensive seeks disagreements 42 permeates income: best range pan- “saving extinction model” 43 clearly preferred option recent publication way: sturdy EU- wide floor” “buffer national-level sustainable” 44 quote preceding quotes tabled entities states; considering ‘augmented’ aspire 4) relate challenges as: maintenance decent wages threat 166 183 168 231 Just 47(1) migration discussed elsewhere 45 nutshell suffer flaw: principal justice-related diminished capabilities adequately ensuring functioning efficient remedies depart defining pertaining Eurozone’s admit comparatively inefficient? stabilizer constitute replacement kicks lose job transfer household stabilization: steady stream loss created one’s 46 Therefore main precisely macro-economic advocacy overlook: stand average operate stabilize 47 contends “does simple indirectly regimes: after reserve price cheap labour” 48 Apart envisaged disputable: Union: conundrum ACCESS EUROPE 2017/02 OECD –policy report Future Work (OECD 2019) 314: stabilizer” “spending during upswing” Vanderborght: opt VAT scale elaboration 21-22 182 relationship ‘reservation wage’ complicated analysis reservation lowest worker willing entitled determinant earning simplified representation discarding variables influencing behavior weekly he decision reduction clear-cut presentation ‘income supply worker: worker’s change turn pressure obtain forces ‘floor’ universally accessible month paying (sticking problem); ask pay extra (for offer) fraction ‘no work’ income’ bottom ‘No refuses (such acceptance jobs he/she like) forfeits tough ado floor universality differential floors wages) salary earned effort 49 believes readiness workers less-developed badly source dumping 50 uniform detailed 23-25 175 happening needed Job nuanced work- lousy Decent country-specific: productivity foregoing nature Given probability 51 actions are: generalize 52 defenders claim: strengthens bargaining creating exit employment; incentives means-tested significantly lower current incentive Martinelli micro-simulation UK data show simultaneously: radical simplification increase; affordability 53 confronted (through simplification) trade-offs micro-simulations illustrates: (poor) payments efficiently targeted affordability/adequacy trade-off Worse someone propose substitute regimes Viehoff) posting (Maximum Convergence 182) L Trilemma: Affordability Adequacy Advantages Radically Simplified non-poor inefficiently targeted) break 54 Space forbids backdrop follows suppose concede inefficient concern; could comparable advantage solutions ‘not intrusive’ models?55 Take modest 200 ca 8% capita amount adjusted purchasing parities Belgium amounts roughly 7% capita; Bulgaria 16% implemented Belgians send 1% abroad install Bulgarians integrate considerable weighs 29% Belgian GDP) taxes figure hypothesis maximal negative Martinelli’s acute introduced richer equivalent (total spending currently 17% Bulgaria’s twice abolish replace K O’Neill comparison distributional effects modes EU28 Euromod Series 14/19 July 55 Dennuit He stresses merit giving substance strongly character synthesis Denuit Le Revenu Universel européen: une nouvelle voie pour l’Europe sociale Coman Fromont Weyembergh (dir Les solidarités européennes Entre enjeux tensions reconfiguration Bruylant 227- 258 developing indebted EUI Conference Unjust?’ drastically reduce levies choose intermediate extremes assume countries: Simultaneously remains fabric strikes By cash Bulgarian total represents departure country’s trajectory superior besetting (superior arsenal policies) Empirical belief: ‘traditional’ edifice subsidy inferior 6. Fairness distributing cooperation trespasses boundaries while “not outcomes” affluent” stated (domestic) OMC around uninterested outcomes driven minimization Third follow her militates interferes exercising ‘sovereignty territory’ odds decisive justice’: advocate (true) gone ‘demoicracy’ writes: “[…] theorists usually refrain parachuted Platonic ideas almost critically employing ” Her demoicracy “works paradigm” founding fathers put war mobility problem-solving capacities one-by-one Transnational forms cross-national structural funds movement) 58 centre distribution integration” 59 frames Dworkinian “what behind (thin) ‘veil ignorance’ position” 60 find construction satisfactory characterizing challenge objections belonging jurisprudence Court (ECJ) sustainability law ECJ’s jurisprudence61 ‘services interest’ mentions extensive public-private partnerships add context-dependence demoicracy: Really way?” 16(2) 210-234; 215 216 Principles Sketch Workshop April wording Debating Raison d’Être: Relation Legitimacy 57(1) 13-27; ‘model 3’ 4’ sets 22-23 infer rejects favour d’Être Legal 230 61 226-227 CJE Laval solely local 62 considers ‘risks’ “neither avoidable foreseeable” 63 ‘in cases’ product ‘mere luck’ cope unforeseeable exogenous events largely leans heavily determinist ECJ one-dimensional promotion liberalization importantly leave little leeway unable influential defended brilliantly Fritz Scharpf presents overwhelming de facto uncontrollable deliberation evidence reverses Court’s Recent confirms politics joint Scharpf’s 64 cooperative ‘insurance’ exogenously operating unpredictable Court; democratic polity dominated continuous compatible cohesion route predictable imposed foreign companies post workers: applicable respected service providers reconsider respective nationwide responses Sweden Denmark reaffirm introduce action: agreements enforced correspond hard Posting Workers Swedish Danish rules game Blauberger ‘With Luxembourg mind remaking face jurisprudence’ 228 Sindbjerg Martinsen Ever Powerful Court? Constraints 2015 suggests; Scharpfian Even grant logics ‘unforeseeable sign initial account: ‘damage’ hypothetical wants establish encompassing potentially ‘vulnerable’ liberalizing architecture deliver classified ‘ambition’ ‘preference’ path-dependent short-term deems identify 65 adamant this: “Equality places special emphasis people’s supposes absurdly causally culture chosen convictions ambitions tastes influence aspires morality citizen’s ethical criticism self-criticism ”66 Extrapolating say: reflect ‘unfortunate historic choices’ relegated circumstances: agency embodied nuance: developments; path-dependency past changing course time- consuming costly 67 assigning explains ‘cravings’ Dworkin’s 66 Sovereign Virtue Revisited Ethics 107 ‘solidarity reform’ ‘Budgetary Instrument Competitiveness area’ reform’: reforms decisions: obsession ‘moral responsibility’ scheme; hazard: try minimize eliminated decide accommodate ‘ambitions’ paradigm fits uneasily 100% guarantee Stretching metaphor bit prevention precluding damage unforeseen real-world developments cyclical shifts consumer technologies) industrial specialization sub-regional agglomeration explained shocks: Contra appropriate ‘choosing’ correctly free-floating exercise: constrained Formulating supposed base constraints summarized follows: inform ought unanswered: up? broaches referring ‘public goods’ creation like required ‘reactive’ theory criticizes “two-step methodology” “can criticize unbalanced (some facing co-operation not) deal balanced ”68 7. cosmopolitanism EU? gives resolutely affirmative question: “[t]he club ”69 ‘is do’ clear: combines collapse movement: “sturdy EU-wide (preferably income) (background 5; goal achieving “demoted toolbox” logical 70 elsewhere: 71 68 Duties Kantian Framework 69 Distributive E Goodin Pettit Pogge Companion Blackwell Volume 2007 652 Normative C Barnard Geert Baere 40-43 envisage ultimate richest lesser increase) living sacrifice maximizes improvement realized poorest countries? cosmopolitans tragic assured grounds avoided problem? satisfied inhabitants fulfil considerably mitigates said dilemma?72 ‘instrumental view’ accepting validity cosmopolitan Banai Kollar equality opportunity permissible self-determination instrumentally 73 ‘logical priority’ accommodation compatibility conviction solidarities cherished tested lab room Accommodating connect original inspiration (who desirable objectives) interpretation cosmopolitanism’ framed disadvantaged achieved confine 72 implying ‘maximin’ rule worst-off fulfillment Brock Cosmopolitan Account Reading bedtime stories compatriots: Reconciling 07/2019 367- 386 pathway Cutting warrant space integrating jeopardizing sobering 5) emerges simulations aimed ‘optimal tax’ optimal median fare tax: unfeasible 74 cherishes intrinsically disparate Are pathways ideal? actively promotes instructs participation EMIN EAPN)75 effectively delivers gradually ‘sturdy floor’ (but two- pronged thought: instructing reasoning EU-specific state; 76 Seelkopf Yang Nos 1-2 145-161 75 fn (2019) Speak Mobile Non-Mobile Bauböck (eds) IMISCOE Springer Cham (first online 2018) 211-217 imperative complemented acknowledge draws cut loose origin Emphasizing climate proposes) confined change: alone: regions Steady 77 Wrapping support: mixture (with participant 8. Envoi: focused hinging 78 deliberate: day run limited; Blanchet Chancel Gethin Unequal Europe? Evidence Distributional National Accounts 1980-2017 WID Although occurred frequently documents declarations rarely It’s definitely larger paper; term solidarities’; analyses solidarities’ study distinguish territorial refugee (setting compensation invested refugees) attain satisfy cosmopolitanism; 79 respect: dissociate ‘disentangle’) Interstate systematically redistributes Does disentangled level? accompanied reconnected 80 recall necessitates Between (pace coping crises etc (between-country) using ‘redistribution’ Rinaldi inequalities Vision Summit Consortium ): Redesigning Ways forward Gütersloh 38-77 Hemerijck uses foundations retain Functional purchase: ‘needs unanswered distinguished ‘guidance’) Another ‘soft guidance’ ‘harder instructions’ ‘efficiency’ (what ‘experimental’ instructions?) ‘citizenship’ (are rights; rights?) explored straightforward “freestanding justification” bears territorially collectivity survive prosper diffuse capable motivating compliance “came legitimation nurturing effectiveness fairness ”81 ‘political good’ 82 81 Crafting Road Map Delivery Missing Necessary ‘Political Good’ 47-67 governance perceptible ‘guarantor rights’ strike