The idea of a European Social Union: a normative introduction

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1 The idea of a European Social Union: normative introduction FRANK VANDENBROUCKE University Amsterdam December 2016 Paper submitted for publication as an introductory chapter in: Frank Vandenbroucke Catherine Barnard Geert De Baere (eds ) A Union After the Crisis Cambridge Press forthcoming 2 Abstract We need clear-cut concept with regard to social dimension EU: not Welfare State but Why is it necessary? First monetary integration requires supranational stabilization instruments: implies risk-sharing and ‘responsibility cut’ Moreover there limit diversity models that can be accommodated in union Hence forces upon its members basic consensus on order has serve second reason why such imperative refers reconcile free movement domestic cohesion EU must become holding environment allows Member States flourishing welfare states What exactly agenda Union? depends choices These have reconnect point purpose project originally emerged uncritical way On foundational level reciprocity within between member key practical we reconsider original division labour envisaged by founding fathers which economic policy would national KEYWORDS: Union; union; solidarity; Europe 3 Introduction1 I thank Robert Jan van der Veen Helder Schutter Erik Schokkaert Chris Luigjes Ad-Willem Dashorst Maurizio Ferrera Bom comments criticism usual disclaimer applies countries aspire In all whatever their tradition or development large support core ambitions modern state: promoting general prosperity sustaining protecting vulnerable individuals supporting education However different are tax benefit systems created varying degrees success capacity stabilisation periods stress automatic stabilisers intrinsically linked protection were convinced contribute prosperous whilst leaving concerns essentially at History did prove them wrong least until mid-2000s Yet experience protracted crisis hit us question: how successful states? Both left right political spectrum despite conflicting views exact mix needed many argue crux implement kind financial governance This book inspired position: yes policies crucial they cannot isolated from longer-term develop role should play domain argument presented this Chapter state itself restoring sovereignty strictly confining also option coherent conception ‘European Union’ led started basis say contributors agree here 4 use notion ‘Social deliberately three reasons invites propose contrast rather vague ‘a Europe’ often surfaces discussions Second indicates go beyond conventional call dimension’ It assert no today coordination security rights mobile workers standards health safety workplace some directives workers’ constitute non-trivial acquis fifty years piecemeal progress developed solid legal foundation enforcing non-discrimination among citizens premised denial positive next steps build stage respond new challenge about more than ‘adding Third emphasis coincidence State: historical legacies institutions As explained below tangible solidarity those collective entities But primary organise interpersonal redistribution individual across borders; main mechanisms now needs States; refer insurance logics investment strategies will touch specific aspects may rethink application subsidiarity principle both ‘union states’ apply fundamental organising Solidarity necessitates degree convergence same harmonisation More generally practice far removed top-down one-size-fits-all approach policy-making summarised follows: systemic functions guide substantive – via objectives ways means operational definition ‘the Model’ other words cooperate explicit hence expression so conceived only desirable necessary unless drop shared 5 aspirations To make analysis leads one definitive version depending judgements brought bear ambitious less project; based conceptions justice Nor already table uncharted territory: important issues clarified An exercise clarification start sets questions existential necessity if was case sixty ago? does add EU? And implemented? Sections focus question bringing together contributions Deakin Grauwe Ji Andor Feenstra volume combined arguments elsewhere detail his contribution returns Single Act 1986: deepening internal market implied step change levels capital mobility prevent regression pan-European floor been logical corollary emerge 1990s except work My two successive developments clearly necessitate Model reservations might time Act: hand consequences unification (notably Section 2) enlargement heterogeneous set 3) these force unique well-defined put bluntly well correspond my personal debate future our model inevitably shifted part functional totally open-ended inspiration project: ambition upward each (my rendering fathers’ belief) delineates contours See F ‘The Case From Muddling Through Sense Common Purpose’ B Marin (ed Future Global (Ashgate 2015) 6 ‘theory understanding multi-tiered polity Therefore revisit legitimacy intrinsic believe compelling appeal people variety opinions intellectually incorrect politically counterproductive consider dogma present hard science justify return ideas examine whether sustained amendment deny enter realm Thus discussion starts observations addressed then ventures into answer what definitely issue informing define demarcate solidarity’: defining demarcating explain provide answers; explores reference contemporary theories distributive offer useful framework conceptualise connects underlying Schutter’s position takes granted results (which optimistic hypothesis partially vindicated) short briefly qualify conclude focuses foundations elaborate chapters (Deakin Martinsen Bekker de Buck Cerutti Pochet Degryse perspective Gutman Kornezov Lenaerts Guttiérrez-Fons) constellation happenstance: difficulty Constitution’ (using Ferrera’s description components volume) resides legacy initial fathers: Union’s competences had reader see 7 assessment current differs scholars who contributed being others (compare instance Guttiérez-Fons) just nature Treaties constellations Van Schyff points out Since proposals Policy discussed follow Vanhercke 10 Tough nuts crack (Friends Brussels 2014) available at: http://www friendsofeurope org/quality-europe/10-tough-nuts-to-crack/ [15 2016]; D Rinaldi inequalities cohesion’ Vision Summit Consortium Redesigning Ways forward (Gütersloh delorsinstitute eu/011-22215-Social-inequalities-in-Europe-the-challenge-of-convergence-and-cohesion html/ ‘Automatic Euro area Tribune Notre Jacques Delors Institute 22 September eu/011-23652-Automatic-stabilizersfor-the-Euro-area-and-the-European-social-model html [12 2016] incomplete Traditional textbook revisited ‘necessity’ partly implications twofold form fiscal (but related) therefore guidance domains feature states; generated tax-and-benefit particular unemployment link Eurozone EU’s careful goes brief chapter; essential insights Well-known theory explains benefits drawbacks terms trade-offs Members currency confronted trade-off 8 symmetry flexibility Symmetry movements output wages prices Flexibility relates wage interregional international determine country’s adjustment asymmetric shock Less flexibility: single productivity growth greater required adaptability beneficial traditional ‘adaptability’ understood mainly and/or There trade-off: shocks absorbed through transfers reduced Fiscal possible alleviate plight negative Obviously even permanent temporary reversible require readiness qualifications EMU equipped mitigate intertemporal i e smooth volatility over Smoothing business cycles possibility increase public debt downturns decrease boom budgetary common bonds achieve (or ‘structural reform’ jargon) crucially when result cycle deal efforts structural reforms They evidence suggesting biggest Automatic Analytically euro compelling; uphill battle today’s comprehensive exploration scenarios thorough fit broader developing presents favour scheme proposal because highlights 9 overall One note comes variants: could either ‘genuine’ system ‘reinsurance’ difference genuine reinsurance short-term unemployed receive fund operate lump sum trigger (based deviation past trajectory State); disbursing money (any participating receives independent rate State) Unemployment raises well-known moral hazard essence occurs person institution) risks someone else another bears costs Moral insured manipulate liability insurer incurs influencing frequency importance risk influenced behaviour choice institutional actors deliberate purely exogenous control design never excluded: inevitable extent any context (whether reinsurance) lax activation (re)employment generates obvious hazard; dismissed quality matter concern group caveat thinking aware price pay obtain pooling objective hazard: minimised respect draw lessons existing polities United Canada Germany Switzerland Austria Belgium Studying interesting conclusions eventual incorporate avoid minimise country average net beneficiary addition fight forms pooled comply minimum requirements ‘activation quality’ ‘stabilisation quality’5 That significant regulation method pursued very Reinsurance offers scope seems complicated Politically true C Institutional assistance summary eight studies (Centre Studies 2016) https://www ceps eu/system/files/SR%20No%20137%20Moral%20hazard%20in%20multi-tiered%20reg%20of%20UB pdf incomes smoothed determines insurance; generosity coverage parameters Segmented markets poorly against reduce quality; underscores problem segmentation Eurozone’s problems n3 above report published June 2015 drafted Presidents five major Institutions: commission Council Central Bank Eurogroup Parliament J Juncker Five Presidents’ Report: Completing Europe’s Economic Monetary close cooperation Tusk Dijsselbloem M Draghi Schulz’ (2015) http://ec europa eu/priorities/sites/beta-political/files/5-presidents-report_en [30 March accepted failures made unstable fragile: lacked banking mechanism recognised President’s Europe’s Report signals acute awareness 11 organisation mutual trust rational most engage do sufficiently ‘minimum requirements’ mentioned previous paragraph create fabric sense including deliver competitiveness sound finances Exposure produced ‘discipline’ finance contrary witnessed asymmetrical divergence Relative deteriorated significantly improved thus creating huge imbalances invisible visible pursues notably increases coordinate increases: effective Wage Arguing mark departure principles Six-Pack Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure8 attempts strengthen makers one-sided account deficits surpluses organised instead around benchmark ‘golden legislative measures bundled ‘six pack’ regulations introduced 2010-2011 introduce macroeconomic surveillance Procedure Six-Pack; aims identify potential early emergence harmful correct place For see: Regulation 1173/2011 16 November 2011 enforcement [2011] OJ L 306/1; 1174/2011 excessive 306/8; 1175/2011 amending (EC) No 1466/97 strengthening positions 306/12; 1176/2011 prevention correction 306/25; 1177/2011 1467/97 speeding up clarifying implementation deficit procedure 306/33; Directive 2011/85/EU frameworks 306/41 12 rule’ linking Such golden rule moderation further acknowledge coordinated bargaining emphasises Instead encouraging decentralisation take encourage facilitate coordination; presupposes stance vis-à-vis dialogue little recent (on Bearing mind adequate long-term seen sustainability affecting nevertheless Even prominent times according Ji’s data excluded reallocation capital? container ‘high road’ placed opposition ‘low high road highly-skilled versatile training transitions low mere deregulation easy hiring firing At first sight thought irrelevant adopted pillars sustainable union: functionally equivalent long outcome apart attached certain types equally perform dimensions relegated mean counsel 13 details features impose limits diversity; promoted flexible approaches (this acquiring considerable experience; Bekker’s actual Semester wage-setting pensions) Whatever neither nor socially neutral Although remain timid illustrates growing recognition fact ‘standards markets’ combine Commission emphasised launched Pillar Rights’ initiative specifically Eurozone: communication noted established open join voluntary basis’ preliminary outline Rights mentions example fighting poverty observes ‘[i]n cases due strict eligibility duration conditions job search participation active ’ proposes following principle: ‘Action shall include requirement allow sufficient preserving incentives quick employment statement Minimum precise provides opportunity theme; well-formulated COM(2016)127 Launching Consultation (Strasbourg 14 incisive benchmarking States’ performance gives cautious welcome: ‘As restatement much overdue attempt reintegrate evolving process union’ He notes yet unclear relationship ends ‘rights’ creates expectations: perception merely replay earlier initiatives soft without frustrate expectations backlash clarify feed S ‘What follows austerity? New Deal’ Joerges ever diverse Preliminary belong side coin per se contradiction coin: recognise legitimate members’ Joerges’ view ‘[t]he threefold commitment democratic autonomy strive curtailment external effects targeted fair co-operative problem-solving likelihood favourable generation ‘we-pay-and-you-obey’ strategy management legalised’ indeed rejects escape conclusion necessary: 15 possibly Only playing card trading illusions Crouch establishing ‘political accountability goal Making Capitalism Fit Society (Polity 2013) ECJ judgment 18 2007 Laval un Partneri C-341/05 EU:C:2007:809 Integration EU28: balancing act Some transcend problematic whole holds induces downward pressure advanced spectre large-scale dumping materialised enlarged blatant illegal working exploitation occur resulting interplay lacunae absence entity Fears tourism causing tensions migration easily resolved condition opinion accept cross-border regulated undermine Free uphold particularly relevant Sweden trade unions traditionally resisted wages: considered no-go authorities applied Court Justice13 suggests unsustainable: argues predictable imposed foreign companies post14 workers: applicable respected service providers partners respective roles relation nationwide local responses Denmark reaffirm action: agreements enforced action Posting Workers Swedish Danish rules game versus upshot becomes plausible too: ‘posted worker’ employee sent employer carry Posted host temporarily integrate maintain contract home (‘sending’) posted latter entitled full equal treatment nationals access Blauberger ‘With Luxembourg … remaking face jurisprudence’ (2012) 19 Journal Public 109 International Transport Workers’ Federation Finnish Seamen’s (‘Viking’) C-438/05 EU:C:2007:772 Together Viking judgment16 services freedom establishment) however ‘predictability’ provisions Prior decisions attempted settlement contained Treaty Rome largely law deployed number techniques protect (hierarchically superior) vigour moment found ‘restriction’ breach interests back foot having defend themselves difficult 17 justification proportionality freedoms expressly competence (strikes) vacuum potentially struck down given express aspect called impossible solve problem; discusses solutions reform promising G ‘Towards Achievements Possibilities under Current Constitutional Framework’ (2014) Euroforum ‘Free Movement Labour Rights: Squaring Circle?’ (2013) Faculty Law Legal Research 23/2013 ‘How Viking/Laval conundrum resolved? Balancing social: bed dreams?’ regulatory big argued judgments Martinsen) pause Feenstra’s review Articles 49 56 TFEU directly leaves margin matters concerning Trade avail derogation According imposing imposes while refusing entrust task determining appears odds instruments (including Directives partners) used attain objectives’ Unlike Laval’s balance (the conundrum) appropriate tool provided alternative Reconciling openness Fundamentally preserve governments allowing delivery Space forbids ‘welfare tourism’ analyses Scharpf Höpner Schäfer impact four authors architecture heterogeneity lead systematically irresistibly liberalisation unchecked erosion industrial relations complex insurmountable ‘balancing act’ feasible room politics arena pessimistic probably associated meaning Caporaso Tarrow20 Justice embed transnational Polanyi’s Court’s) purposes acting arbiter (under conditions) spirit Witte21 develops subtle ‘transnational solidarity’ broad Witte accommodate satisfactory examples act; 20 Tarrow ‘Supranational Institutions Transnational Embedding Markets’ (2009) 63 Organization 593 21 Emergence (Oxford Despite especially recognized opening provision opportunities Eastern formulates inspiring scholarly fruitful re-framing classical last decades dominated debates ‘social deficit’ construct asymmetry market-making market-correcting (economic legal) powers If composite component live inherent ‘asymmetry’ ‘deficit’ weaknesses imputed Likewise instrument solution remedy weaknesses’ 23 missing good’’ 24 ‘(B)Remains day: Brexit policy’ 25 Ibid final sobering vote UK She confronts discomforting questions: difference? calls regulating employees situations remedying related Migration precarious segments shortages ‘EU Domestic let population; respond’ imbalance se: decision transition period intra-EU after 2004 austerity non-Eurozone country… Barnard’s wanted situation find resources level: promoter idea; adequacy services; translate nice inclusive With fairness wryly concludes emperor clothes’ think (as do) blame discourse Remain case: guilty passive neglect speak guided guarantee broadly hand; underpinning parcel guiding afford gap principles: clothes foregoing shows perspectives Europe: Given increasing entertaining increasingly anachronistic thesis actions informed consistent justice: obviously want submit specific: (common) resonates volume26 Developing tiered self-evident territory hope illustrate (without exhaustive pretending give answers) 26 Andrea Sangiovanni thought-provoking explicitly distinguishes applying introduces ‘reciprocity’ ‘Solidarity 36 Oxford congeniality Sangiovanni’s ‘realist’ (I borrow ‘point purpose’ him) differences pursue bridges ‘idealist’ ‘cooperative justice’ Dworkinian device purchase constraints assume consists Subsections Subsection scene sketching relatively benign hindsight philosophy defines concepts (solidarity redistribution) third difficulties encounters tries relate fourth sketches puzzle emerges conflate ‘justice’ ‘solidarity’: (one component) multifaceted narrowly share aim compensate (disadvantageous) circumstances hold responsible slight detour situate well-rehearsed incomplete: am fully citizenship shape integrated exploratory Setting scene: described ‘convergence machine’ Convergence pre-condition continuing integration: ‘output legitimacy’ simultaneous pursuit (through gradual states) Union) 2008 observe opposite: becoming unequal prepared optimistically assumed reached raising standard living later territorial policy) boost convergence; redistribute fruits remaining prerogative confined anti-discrimination legislation Admittedly encompasses areas redistributive remained firmly anchored (and slightly interpretation) cohesion: How understand ‘dual perspective’? Can solidarities)? income obligations indicated diminish confident produce fairly tune preferences Their belief opposite globalisation doomed winners losers (benign) interpretation normatively inspiration: contradicts overly how? scale Europeans improve own lives discrimination nationality Gradually patients acquired medical care residence vision? Apart agricultural limited cross-country less-developed regions funds so-called envisage normally mixtures Subsection) Historically predominantly opportunities: joining wanting needing pursuing motivated inclusion classic coping proposed besetting (a efficient Stability Mechanism (ESM) pre-established sovereign default restructuring; schemes scheme) always entail ex ante 27 initially ‘opportunity structure’ aspiration dual consequence ago future: simply co-existing models; describes interact supposed since episodes post came negotiations establishment inherently Simultaneously east tension goals dynamics convergence’ non-discriminatory controversial complexity superficial rhetorical references suffice revamp project’s able understandable ordinary embedded Normative rigorous academic Is pioneers vast 1970s? promote reduction premise ‘distributive Loosely typically distribution entitlements goods; ultimate goods well-being societies reflects society equals owe inequality elaboration egalitarian attracted attention: responsibility; boundaries apply: entertain justice?28 28 Another attention metric (‘equality what?’): address responsibility evaluation outcomes? Are ‘equality opportunity’ outcome’? Philosophical proponents equality distinction (for family background innate talents) effort talents work) Issues dominate rely solidarity? nation’s count structure thorny ‘responsibility-sensitive egalitarianism’ 1980s slipstream Rawls’ Theory 29 philosophical responsibility-sensitive egalitarianism ‘luck R Dworkin equality? Part 2: Equality resources’ (1981) Philosophy Affairs 283; Arneson ‘Equality welfare’ (1989) 77; Cohen ‘On 99 Ethics 906 influential critical E Anderson equality?’ (1999) 287 Important monographs Roemer (Harvard 1998); Fleurbaey Fairness 2008) survey literature Trannoy Atkinson Bourguignon Handbook Income Distribution (Elsevier Volume 2A 30 approach’ synonyms usage character 31 suffices combination compassion (F K Lievens ‘Wederkerigheid: niet vanzelfsprekend wel nodig’ P Janssens Voor wat hoort Naar een nieuw sociaal (De Bezige Bij 2011); ‘De actieve welvaartsstaat Een Europees perspectief’ Den Uyl Lecture december 1999 canonsociaalwerk eu/1999_actieve_welvaartstaat/1999Vandenbrouckeactievewelvaartstaat Responsibility Responsibility-sensitive justice30 benchmarks assess ‘just’ ‘unjust’ capture where locates threshold factors held compensation Traditionally cut: sickness inactivity outside covered deploy life fail achieve) intelligence socioeconomic gender origin cut hours career length try neutralise talent disadvantage origin) childcare ideally worked principled neutralised child etcetera ‘if’) anything tools straightforward outcomes-approach characteristics includes variables moves away outcomes intellectual makes bring confused 32 drawing line unchosen predicated liable objection notions unending disputes agreement location metaphysical unavoidable subject contract: human beings something like nation Often defined everything intelligence); ‘equal opportunities’ satisfied influence opportunity; fits theoretical intergenerational realised; demanding When board observation: achieving tackling context: parent generations instrumental children Inequality Be Done? 2015); OECD Together: Benefits All (OECD Publishing ‘on principles’ 33 wish referred providing definitions strand framework33 compensating Depending conceptually distinguished: Pure foreseen reasonably calculated homogeneous identical profiles) profiles expected value cashed pure Insurance Redistribution prime progressive taxation redistributes (inter alia) economically talented less-talented individuals: compensates (in part) talent; differ 34 motivation disposition ‘demanding’ Well-organised readily enlightened self-interest: expectation end everybody wins So prima facie self-interest get mixed cement higher minima maxima proportional skill embodies high-skilled low-skilled presumption admittedly tested empirically upon) easier persuade (Hooghe Verhaegen assumption book) Progressive ‘bad luck’ incorporates too extended relationships authorities: ‘inter-institutional imply (say states); triggered ‘interpersonal individuals; turn exercised theorising justice? rehearsed global logic boundaries: worse-off he born poor certainly circumstance Nevertheless intense Just ‘international reaction defence against) Rawls 35 circle: ‘our’ circle? Barry Beitz Pogge Nagel Parijs Stanford Encyclopedia See: ‘International Distributive Justice’ Goodin Pettit T Companion Contemporary Political (Blackwell 2007); entry http://plato stanford edu/entries/international-justice paper existence borders demands kick Prima convincing Borders prevented virtue happen taking advantage coercive effect people’s constraining ‘global ‘basic Subsequently ‘demoted framework’ (of thinking) ‘to toolbox’: Suppose adopt minimalist Under conversation evidently priority nations ought vanish erased peoples dissolved demoted toolbox seizing desperate halt irresistible urgently best constrained reconfigured empowered n35 p 652 (emphasis added) implementing truly conceive ‘laboratory’ basically Parijs’ inspires starting explore challenges Supranational laboratory Below ‘supranational short-cut Two Contrary sometimes resource sharing highest applications you lower done loss efficiency 37 justice38: inter-institutional ‘loss’ ideal conditions: needed; below) 39 subsidiarity; 38 Note distinguished pragmatic attitudes: unattainable attitudes) settle attainable attitudes insufficient ‘fellow feeling’ sustain 40 pension Belgian federalism Drèze interaction (Re-Bel 2009) rethinkingbelgium eu/rebel-initiative-ebooks/ebook-1-subsidiarity-interpersonal-solidarity type Durré Carpantier ‘Fiscal Growth Stimulation 80 Louvain Review observation (there justice): (sufficiently large) implemented stages every Take pay-as-you-go subdivided re-insure regional demographic hitting regions: extrapolated two-tiered vary Subsidiarity Whilst discuss response flaw (with unemployment) enhancing level; improvement touched reconsidered reformulated insure convention responsible; agent event liability); obsession desire eliminate completely (global sense) entails sake perfect correlation states: inter-state 41 Or suppose distributions: theoretical: delivers gradually unnecessary; scenario Upward slow precondition wants (applied EU) equalised abstraction relevance synchronisation non-synchronisation concrete sufficient? finally equalisation evident 5) Would leave governments? objections qualifies accepts 42 mutually exclusive flat inconsistent 43 incompatible rationale individual’s dependent fellow citizen attained preferences) implausible ready transfer X stated wit helping advantaged exist conditional acceptance deliberation forced implicit ‘Europeanised’ Basically income) depend funding Consider hardly towards Europeanised subsidiarity-based deviations contradict improving me isolate ‘redistribution’ separate function neat care…) dissociate functioning Europeanisation logically edifice edifice) trump preferences: strong (not drastic move highly ‘realistic’ carries weight notwithstanding traction debate: (‘European’) values Jointly defending life’ Habermas referring former French Prime Minister Lionel Jospin) heart 44 on-going driven strategic Open Method Coordination (OMC) Inclusion 2001 realise OMC formulated instantiating justice; inputs asked commonality constitutes rigidly Kenneth Armstrong sees constitutionalism: Next seeing upscaling recapitulated Deakin’s court-led constitutionalism prise demonstrate reconciled OMC-driven test demand explanations exercises name combating exclusion jumping-off articulated practices irreducible avoided 45 Governing Europeanization 2010) 262 ‘Sustainable ‘Open Co-ordination’ Esping-Andersen 2002) Armstrong’s Cantillon N Mechelen Goedemé Lancker protection: Clarifying Conundrum’ Marx Nelson Protection Flux (Palgrave Macmillan 46 congenial qua perceived weak vantage (contra objection) diminished rescue real Corporate example: race-to-the-bottom corporate base) supply Governments counter taxable production freely tend taxed etcetera: trends Whether reality dispute evident; empirical learn systems) setting achieved reliance level) fundamentally movement? detailed Briefly Floris […] cosmopolitan structures good sensitive preconditions reproduction structures’ 47 n21 48 Rosanvallon equilibrium forms: exchange involvement’ Equals translated Goldhammer 271 Bowles’ reciprocity: propensity similarly disposed cost Bowles collaboration Fong H Gintis Jayadev U Pagano Essays Economics (Cambridge 2012) Rosanvallon’s reciprocity48 ‘[R]eciprocity reconfiguration relational commitments Witte’s enhances non-nationals (‘transnational solidarity’) associative thereby entertains solidarity: contributory it: solidarities healthcare Giving one’s ‘need’ jeopardising ‘preconditions giving lot specified: straightforwardly Justice’s testifies (safeguarding revenue expenditure) popular support) Crucially nationality: ‘non-nationals’ denied concur Polish regular Belgium) (Belgium) circles Secondly justifies worker’s pays sustains tolerate competition contributes safeguarding ‘deal’ Cameron leaders discriminate British misguided Competition happens posting worker ‘posted’ remains exception projects fortiori inspection analysed her Elsewhere badly encompassing 50 ‘New’ Poland few limitations (since liberal regime them) relapse lose have) seem ‘old’ nervous markets; feel uneasy contracts context? negotiation old way: ‘We discriminating your come total please undermined excesses posting’ 51 representatives mature strike better (posting non-discrimination) compared uncontrollable proliferate thrive ultimately Everybody archetypal yield Pareto-inferior currently worried abuses controllable n6 bilateral Dutch government in-work non-British separated advised necessary) circle concomitant 52 adds Cameron’s non-discrimination; article ‘demands cooperating maintaining reproducing EU’ His reciprocity-argument Britons citizenship) ‘Non-discrimination (2016) Epub ahead print 53 2014 Elisabeta Dano Florin v Jobcenter Leipzig C-333/13 EU:C:2014:2358 Non-discriminatory non-active drawn delicate observers highlighted Justice53 delineate reflect touches variant exemplified denies Transferring realist position; centralised (corporate taxes wealth taxes) saga reveals (Van formulation justice) (because legitimation really absolute demote ‘instruments’ objectives? Let stylised Let’s composed rich classes class representative positions: State; better-off egalitarians worst-off maximin à la Rawls) choose scenarios: (integration) deteriorate improve; (no integration) status-quo ‘integration’ ado sure imaginary betray believed stylisation tragic dilemma anyone thinks ‘dualist’ dualism ‘non-reducible’ size concerned: ‘we’ differently simple alone algorithm whereby indicators indicator attractive simplicity fails formulate (loosely relative ‘worst-off State’) States) dualist ambiguity inconsistency By possible) States: clear faced contradictory objective: ‘sufficientarian’ ‘enough’ survive instantiate ‘benevolence’ complement stern 54 benevolence redistribution; priorities 55 n23 plea n31 priori consistency expressed 60 cent median funded et al n45 57 thoroughly Including exemplify building himself belonging ‘realist strand’ ‘combining sociological reasoning’;56 ‘idealist ideals utopian dreaming bad unable dream ‘[i]f exerting justificatory closely factual affairs feasibility constraints’ idealist polluting conflating actually ‘ought statements’ ‘is’ statements emphasise realism idealism instrumental) Conditions preceding taken vindicated Formulating precisely reconstructed hypotheses: (1) (2) generous hypotheses experts Europe) (at presumably nuanced space pointed (most evidently) exert optimism (integration prosperity) qualification flaws orientation models: Europe; 58 above; Hemerijck Uses Investment 2017) 59 Innerarity ‘After Eurocrats’ Dream Contingence History’ Verfblog www verfassungsblog de/after-the-eurocrats-dream-the-contingence-of-the-history/ Conclusions it? functional: Stabilisation truth Model) externalities exigencies triggers ‘openness’ ‘holding environment’ framed imperatives is: ‘Politics liberty midst Politics originated opt (rather unfair credible determinism characterises stake convince robust underpin valorise surprisingly rarely simplified assuming realized frame edge making ‘justice buoyant Existing sources famous correspondence Rawls; ‘Why constitution’ (2001) Left 5; renewed insistence (yet elaborating it) ‘Democracy Crisis’ lecture delivered KULeuven April 2013 kuleuven be/euroforum/page php?LAN=E&FILE= policy-papers ‘Three Letters Peoples Union’ Revue Philosophie Économique recently focused instigated democracy Rawls-Machiavelli programme (ECPR 2011) ; n26 Kochenov Burca Williams Deficit (Hart Neyer Forst Lacroix Nicolaïdis world endeavour: stronger amongst democratically elected democracies; democracies complemented underestimated contention foremost ‘democratic Institutions; ‘deficit urgent